Kala in ayurveda
Etymological derivation, Lakshana and division / units, significance in Ayurveda
Kala can be defined as a season. Kala has been described in Ayurveda as a factor which has neither a start nor an end. The change resulting from an earlier situation to succeed or present situation is known as Kala. It is also known as Parinama. Each and everything of this universe or cosmos, undergoes change. The changes evident in the universe or cosmos are bound to follow a definite order. The same implies to the physical body of the human beings. These changes are inevitable and are going on without any break. Kala is the principle reason for the vicious cycle of birth and death among human beings.
Kala is defined as the mandatory reason for the construction and destruction of all the substances of the universe.
Divisions of kala
Depending on the changes occurring in the human - body and in the three biological humors with the time, kala is broadly classified into:-
- Jaiva chakra
- Adhi Bouthika chakra
1. Jaiva chakra
The three biological humours including vata, pitta and kapha, during ageing and senescence, are exposed to metabolic changes:
- Vata, the biological air, is predominant during old age.
- Pitta, the biological fire predominates during the middle age. This is the high time of anabolism.
- During the childhood time, the biological water, Kapha is the predominating factor. This is the high time of catabolic changes.
2. Adhi Bouthika chakra
The anatomical and physiological changes that occur in the human-body from the intake of food-stuffs are part of the Adhi Bouthika chakra. Kapha, the biological water, predominates when the digestion of food-stuffs initiates. Pitta, the biological fire, predominates when digestion of the food- stuffs is in the intermediate stage. Vata, the biological air, predominates when digestion of the food- stuffs is in the last stage.
Here the division of kala is based on the solar solstice:-
- Aadan Kala (Summer solstice)
- Visarga Kala (Winter solstice)
According to Chakrapani and other Ayurvedic scholars, year (Samvatsara in Ayurveda) (year) is a combination of the two solstices (Ayana) (solstice) and six seasons (Ritu). The the two solstice (ayana), Uttarayana and Dakshinayana are better called as Adana kala and Visarga Kala, respectively. Seasons (ritu) have great impact on the healthy state, three biological humours, digestive capacity (bala), and taste (rasa) . Season plays a significant role during the establishment of Prakriti.
According to ayurveda fundamental concepts, at the start and the fag end of Visharga and Adana periods, respectively, the Agni of the huma beings shall be weak. During the middle of the adana kala, and middle stage of visharga kala, metabolic fire shall be either be medium or moderate. During the end and beginning respectively the agni of individuals will be best.
Aushada Kala (Time of drug-adminstration)
According to Charaka, following are the times of administration of drugs:-
- Abhakta : Medicines are given earty in the morning because. The purpose behind this is that absorption of the drugs is at maximal in the morning and effective in the morning hours.
- iPragbhakta : Medicines are adminstered before meals. Pragbhakta is indicated for diseases associated with vitiation of one of five types of vata, apana vayu. The chief purpose is to prevent and strengthen and the lower part of the human body.
- Madhyabhakta : Madhyabhakta is indicated for diseases associated with vitiation of one of five types of vata, samana vayu. It also targets disorders of the abdomen. In case of diseases caused by vitiation of Pitta, medicines are given intermittenly between foods.
- Pratah Pscadbhakta : In Pratah Pscadbhakta, the medicines are administered in the morning after consumption of meals. Pragbhakta is indicated for diseases associated with vitiation of one of five types of vata, vyana vayu. The chief purpose is to prevent and strengthen and the upper part of the human body.
- Pragbhakta : Pragbhakta is indicated for diseases associated with vitiation of one of five types of vata, udana vayu. In Pragbhakta, it is advised that medicines should be given in evening after meals.
- Muhurmuhuh : Muhurmuhuh is indicated at treating diseases like kasa, swasha, hiccough, emesis and morbid thirst.
- Samudga : In Samudga, medicines are administered at the start and and after intake of the light food. Samudga is indicated in in hiccough, epilepsy and diseases of the head and the neck.
- Sabhakta : In Sabhakta, medicines usually in the shape of appetite stimulating action are administered with the food. It is indicated in people having thin frame and in children. This is preferred in children, especially of weak constitution.
- Sagrasa : Sagrasa is indicated for diseases associated with vitiation of one of five types of vata, prana vayu. Sagrasa is used for appetier and aphrodisiac action.
- Sagrasantara : Sagrasantara is indicated for heart disorders and diseases associated with vitiation of one of five types of vata, prana vayu.