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According to the Indian philosophical schools of thought, the antecedent, which is unconditionally and invariably preceding a change or effect, is known as a reason or the cause. The theoretical explanation of the Karya (Effect) and the Karana (Reason or the Cause) is one of the most significant theories of Ayurvedic System of medicine. The Indian philosophical schools of thought are divided in two distinct categories, when the theoretical explanation of the Karya (Effect) and the Karana (Reason or the Cause) are discussed.
Vedanta and Samkhya have firm belief in Satkarya vada, which is nothing but the effect pre existing in the cause. Nyaya and Vaisheshika advocates for Asatkarya vada, which is nothing but the effect which does not pre-exist in the cause. Vedanta, Samkhya, Nyaya and Vaisheshika philosophical schools of thought and theories are highly useful for understanding the basic concepts descried in Ayurvedic System of medicine.
Charaka Samhita describes Karya (Effect) and the Karana (Reason or the Cause) in context to health and diseased state of the human body. By understanding and studying the concept of Karya (Effect) and the Karana (Reason or the Cause), one can achieve the chief and final goal of Ayurvedic System of medicine.
The factor which results in the production of Karya is described as Karana. The factor that definitely exists prior to the Karya is described as Karana. A thing which is unconditionally and invariably preceding a change or effect is known as a reason or the cause. Cause invariably precedes the change or the effect, depending upon the condition, the antecedent has no connection with the effect indirectly or remotely.
All the things that exist before Karya cannot be considered as Karana. It should possess the following three typical characteristics, to be known as Karana.
In Ayurvedic system of medicine, Karta has been defined as Karana. According to Chakrapani, due to wisdom or Buddhi, prayatnayuktatvad Karta is the chief motivator for other type of Karanas. Kartritva is associatied with Karta. Karana different synonyms including (Hetu, Nimitta, Ayatana, Karta, Pratyaya, Samutthana, Nidana) which refrss to the root-cause of the disease grossly. Karana has further classification in two distinct types.
Curing the of ailment, described as Vikara Shaman in Ayurveda is indicator of tissue-balance (Dhatu Samyata), which is described as Karya as per Ayurvedic philosphy. The Samkhya system acceptes and defines Satkaryavad. Indian philosophical schools can be divided into two distinct groups.
Vedanta and Samkhya, gives acceptance to the Satkarya Vada. Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sautrantika and Vaibhasika beleive in Asatkarya Vada. According to the Samkhya philosophical schools, the material effect pre exists in its material cause. Prakriti is the final reason or cause of all the existence at physical level, Trigunas (Satva, Raja and Tama), as they are behind the constitution of every object at physical level. Parinamvada (the real change) and Vivartavada (the apparent change) are the two chief aspects of Satkaryavada. Parinamvada (the real change) and Vivartavada (the apparent change) accept that the material effect is identical with the material cause.