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Mala is an important topic of Ayurvedic curriculum, particularly, human physiology or Sharira Kirya. Mala are the waste matter or substances that are excreted out of the human-body. Mala represents the by-products resulting from the physiological and metabolic activities going inside the human- body. Elimination of ther malas in an efective way is important for maintaininancxe of better health.
In Ayurvedic system of medicine, purish-stool, mutra-urine and sweda-sweat are considered to be major class of malas. Malas are better known as dushya-pollutants, as they have an influencial effect on the vikriti-pathology caused which is caused by imbalanced three biological humours. Precisely, malas get the name due to its property of malinikaran-toxification. After the three biologcal humours and seven tissues, malas are the third important factors of the human body.
The three biological humours must remain in balanced equilibrium in order to ensure regular and normal evacuation. The biological fire, pitta and the biological water, kapha paly vital role in the process of the digestion. The biological air, vata governs the mobility of pitta and kapha throughout the process of digestion. Any imbalance or discrepancy between these the three biological humours can lead tympanites, flatulence, abdominal colic, malabsorption, chronic-diaarhoea, dysentery, and above all, constipation. Ama production is another factor, which, coupled with imbalance or discrepancy between these the three biological humours can result in diseases like amvata-rheumatoid arthritis, sandhigatavata-osteoarthritis, kativata-low-back pain, tamak svasa-asthama, vrana-gastric ulcers and pakvasjayagata vata-irritable bowels syndrome or spastic-colon
In context of amvata-rheumatoid arthritis, Ayurveda describes that amavata is caused by an excess of ama-byproduct of improper digestion and lack of agni-digestive fire. It can be caused by weakened colon and poor digestion, resulting in the accumulation of ama -undigested food in the gut and the gradual buildup of waste products.
Due to metabolic activities being carried out by the human-body, by-products of the ingested food food-stuffs and waste products are formed in a constant fashion. If the malas or the waste products are not formed at regular basis, besides the beneficial products, which feed nutrients to the dhatu-tissues, then the anabolic and catabolic (metabolic) processes are ultimately and its results in the formation of malforming dhatu-tissues. Hence, appropriate segregation of essence of ingested food-stuffs and malas-waste product plus proper and their regular excretion for maintenance of the health. Malas represents the waste products of the human body and their proper excretion from the human-body is vital
1. Purish (Stool or human feces) - Stool or human feces occur as a result of a process of defecation. Stools are the waste product of the human gastro-intestinal system. Stool can vary in appearance from one person to another person, which depends upon the tone of state of the of the human gastro-intestinal system. As regard healthy tone of state of the human gastro-intestinal system, it is influenced by by a balanced diet and normal health. Normal stools are in semisolid state, with a mucus covering. Any fallacy caused in the normal process of excretion of stools (defecation) can result in flatulence, constipation, diarrhea and colicky pain.
2. Mutra (Urine) - Urine is yet another important waste-product of the human-body. Urine is a liquid waste-product of the human-body, secreted out by vrrka (the kidneys) through a proceess of glomeluar filtration from the connective tissue, the blood. Urethra excretes urine from the urinary system of the human body. Any fallacy caused in the normal process of excretion of urine results lead in anuria, oligouria, urinary tract infections, renal stones, colicky pain and renal faliure.
3. Sweda (Sweat) - In the Ayurvedic system of medicine and physiology, perspiration or sweating is known as Sweda. It is basically a fluid that comes out of the skin pores and primarily consists of water as well as various dissolved solids. On the surface of the skin are the sensitive papillae and within, are sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles. Sebaceous glands manufacture sebum, a substance that lubricates the skin. Thus, it represents a means of thermoregulation in the human body. Any fallacy caused in the normal process of excretion of sweat results in psoriasis, dermatitis, , keartoderma, lichen planus, and above all, reduced body temperature.
Decrease or increase in the quantity of the waste products (stools, urine or sweat) indicates problems requiring medical consultation. The doshas (humours), dhatu (tissue) and malas (waste-products) forms the essential and basic components which support and assist support the vital functions of the human-body. In Ayurveda, malaksahya is a significant feature in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. According to Charka, malaksahya should be dealt effectively in better prognosis of tuberculosis.
According to Ayurveda, the only balanced condition of doshas, dhatus and malas is Aarogya (good health or disease free condition) and their imbalance causes ill health or disease .