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Lakshana, enumeration and classification, Bhava and Abhava padartha, Padartha according to Charaka (Karana-Padartha).
Padartha is a Sanskrit word derived from combination of two words. 'Pada' signifies foot or step or stride, 'Artha' is related to
Thus the word Padartha literally means 'the object signified by a word' or 'the meaning of a word'. All the objects of knowledge fall in the category of padartha.
Later on, the commentators added yet another (seventh), privation. Then Nyaya school of thought developed a list containing sixteen Padarthas.
Dravya is definitely an organized moiety. Dravya is defined as store house of guna (physical properties) and karma (pharmacological properties). As an instance, combination of atoms results in synthesis of molecules. Similarly, molecules dissociate into atoms. The process of combination and separation are included in karma. According to Ayurvedic philosophy, guna resides in the dravya as when two dravya combine together to form a new entity and after through study, it can be concluded that the new entity has distinct property.
Visesha refers to dissimilarity. The food-stuffs that we eat, if they have similarity to the human body constituents (directly or even by activity or quality); then the food-stuffs increase those body constituents. As an instance, the flesh or meat has direct similarity with the flesh of the body. Thus, it shall increase the Mansa Dhatu in the human body.
Samavaya refers to co-existence. Samavaya is defined as union that cannot be seperated and in which the parts of dravya are held together in proper configuration. Dravya has samavaya relationship with guna and karma.
Abhava (Non-Existence) padartha are entirely different from the bhava padartha and is treated as the seventh category. Kanada accepts six padartha, but according to the Vaisesika school of thought, abhava, mentioned in prameya form is the seventh padartha. Abhava (Non-Existence) padartha have been dealt with detail in Vaisesika philosophy.
The Bhatta Mimamsa, Dvaita schools, the Vaisheshika, and the Nyaya, the Bhatta Mimamsa and Dvaita schools of though hold Abhava (Non-Existence) as a distinct classs. The Nyaya school of thought considers abhava as reality and is connection with Mukti. In this relative word, abhava can come only when there was/is a bhava, previously. More or less, abhava is an occasion happening with time. Abhava represents unmanifested state from where the bhava is born or emerged. To conclude, abhava means negation or non-existence or absence or nothing.