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Disease simply means when body is not at ease. As per modern terminology, a disease is a pathological state, which either effects one or all the parts of the body. A specific disease has its own signs and symptoms. On the other hand, some physicians call disease a phase that hinders normal function of the body.
In Ayurvedic practice, disease is known as "Vyadhi". According to the Ayurvedic tradition, disease has two causes.
Ayurveda is based on peculiar fundamental principles like Tridosha (three humors vata, pitta and kapha) theory, and Panch-mahabhuta (five elements ether, air, fire, water and earth) theory. Imbalance of the three humours is considered to be the root cause of the disease.
|1||Prana||Breathing, blood circulation and swallowing|
|2||Udana||Sound, speech, memory|
|3||Vyana||Perspiration, blinking and other movements|
|4||Samana||Digestion and formation of stools|
|5||Apana||Excretion of the waste products|
|1||Ranjaka||Colour of blood, bile and stools|
|2||Sadhaka||Deals with intellect and memory|
|4||Bharajaka||Colour of the skin|
|5||Pachaka||Digestion of food stuffs|
|1||Tarpaka||Sense and hearing|
|2||Avalambaka||Protects heart and lungs|
|5||Sleshaka||Lubrication in the joints|
In medicine, cause of the diseases is known as aetiology. In Ayurveda, we call it as Nidana. Factors, whether external or internal, causing disease disturbs the equilibrium in functioning of the three biological humours, resulting in initiation of the disease process. Disease causing factors can disturb any of the three biological humours.
Manas roga in modern age are known as psychiatric diseases and treatment with Ayurvedic principles is known as Ayurvedic psychotherapy or Ancient psychiatry. The study of mental health constitutes one of the eight divisions of Ayurveda. Underlying pathology of Manas roga is psychological or emotional imbalance. Physical diseases are outcome of psychological factors. It is a common observation that patients are careless about mental and physical health as they are preoccupied by psychological or emotional imbalance.
According to Manovigyana, site of mind is heart. Heart represents network of channels within the human body which are responsible for flow of fluids. Disturbance in physical or mental form, results in physical and mental diseases.
Manas roga or mental diseases are associated with emotion trauma, negative attitude, stress, sexual-abuse, personal losses or drug-induced. According to Ayurvedic philosophy, Manas roga are born out of disturbance in Sattva, one of the Trigunas. Sattva is largely responsible for inherent quality of the mind. Sattva, if overshadowed by Rajas or Tamas, losses its predominance and manifestations are evident from depression, anxiety-neurosis, stress, sham-rage, schizophrenia and above all, melancholia.