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Abrus precatorius:
Botanical name: Abrus precatorius
Common name: Rosary beads or peas, Gunja, Indian liquorice

Abrus precatorius is found to be containing a very powerful poison known as abrin, which is a protein similar to the ricin. The seeds are having a beautiful bright red color with the black spot on it. The chewed seeds are when swallowed this is very deadly. Each seed is about 8mm in length & 6mm in breadth with an average weight of 105mg. These seeds were used by the Indian goldsmiths for the purpose of weighing gold and silver. 

The actions of the seeds are:

  1. Purgative
  2.  Emetic
  3.  Tonic
  4.  Aphrodisiac
  5.  Ophthalmic

The plant is commonly known as Ratti or Gunchi within India. The ratti referred to a single ratti seed. This seed was the standard weight in the ancient Indian system of measurements, because the seed is fairly constant in weight; on avarage it weights about 105 mg. The seeds are about 100 times less poisonous when taken by mouth than when injected.

Toxicology of Abrus precatorius

Abrus precatorius is an organic irritant poison.  All the parts of the plant are poisonous.  Seeds contain a variety of poisonous proteins, among which the most important one is abrin, a thermo labile toxalbumin, which is very similar to viperine snake venom in their physiological and toxic properties.  In addition to abrin the seeds contain a fat-splitting enzyme, haemagglutinine within the cotyledons.
 
Abrin, the most important active principle of Abrus precatorius seed is a tasteless, amorphous, pale grey colored solid substance.  This dissolves readily in cold water, and the solution which is of slight yellowish in color froths on agitation. Abrin is also soluble in glycerin.  When taken internally by mouth, the gas­tric juice has some inactivating action on it.  Abrin loses its activity on boiling, and therefore the seeds when cooked can be taken without any harmful effects.  It is said that the powdered seeds in 60-200mg doses boiled with milk are used as a nervine tonic.

Fatal dosage of abrin:- 

  1. 90-120mg.
  2. When injected subcutaneously it is 100 time as toxic as the oral route

Fatal period: - 24 hours to 5 days.

Signs and symptoms of Abrus precatorius poisoning

Symptoms may be delayed from a few hours to 2-3 days. If uncooked seeds are taken, the following signs and symptoms develop.  They include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, sunken eyes, cold perspiration, trembling of the hands, dyspnoea, weak, rapid and irregular pulse, vertigo, and faintness, rectal bleeding, oliguria and features of uremia. If injected subcutaneously in man, at the site of injection painful swelling and ecchymosis develops with the inflammation and necrosis; generalized septicemia and haemolysis occurs.  There may develop convulsions and death may occur from cardiac failure (cardiac paralysis) within 3-5 days.

Parts used

Seeds

Uses of Abrus precatoriu+s

  1. Eye complaints like the purulent conjunctivitis
  2. Epithelioma
  3. Ulcers
  4. Inflammation which spreads to the face and neck
  5. Granular ophthalmia
  6. Keratitis
  7. Angina pectoris
  8. Myocardial infarction
  9. Valvular insufficiency
  10. Cellulites
  11. Gangrene
  12. Gastritis
  13. Hypertension
  14. Nephritis
  15. Brain tumor
  16. Cardiomyopathies
  17. Epilepsy
  18. Septicemia shock
  19. Tetanus
  20. Purpura
  21. Typhoid
  22. Dysentery
  23. Cholera
  24. Snake bite (in it’s late sequel)
  25. Purgative
  26. Emetic
  27. Tonic
  28. Aphrodisiac  
   

 

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