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Lakshana and Classification of Siddhanta

What is Lakshana?

Lakshana is a Sanskrit word derived by combining two words lakshya plus kshana, which means either Symptom or Indication. Lakshana stands for attribute, quality and lastly for auspicious mark.

Ayurveda was derived from Artharva Veda and Vedic era is considered to be the time, when Ayurveda flourished as a science. It is estimated that around 1000 B.C., two major texts Samhita of Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita were composed. Charaka Samhita deals with medicine and Sushruta Samhita deals with surgery. Distinguished scholars were attracted to the science of Ayurveda and visited India for acquiring scientific language.

The diagnosis of the disease is largely based on pulse examination. An expert Ayurvedic doctor is in a position to tell about the disease process by examining the pulse.

Detailed investigation includes:-

  • Interrogation of the patient in terms of body constitution, exercising and digestive capacity,
  • Objective examination to assess the progress of the disease,
  • Examination by inference like colour of skin, urine, and state of the pupil.


Siddhant refers to the basic or fundamental principles. Basic principles of Ayurveda are full-fledged subject of B.A.M.S (Ayurvedachraya) course. There is a provision of doing MD (Ayurveda) in Basic principles also. PhD courses are also available leading to a doctorate degree in Maulik Siddanta.

Various Siddhant according to Ayurvedic concepts are enumerated below:

  • Five element theory (Panchmahabhuta Siddanta)
  • Three Omni substances (Triguna Siddhanta)
  • Concept of three energies (Tridosha Siddhanta)
  • Concept of seven tissues (Saptadhatu Siddhanta)
  • Concept of three waste products (Concept of three waste products)
  • Concept of digestive enzymes (Agni Siddhanta)
  • Concept of digestion (Annapachan Siddhanta)
  • Concept of constitution (Prakruti Siddhanta)
  • Concept of Macrocosm & Microcosm (Loka Purusha Siddhanta)
  • Concept of Similarity & Dissimilarity (Samanya Vishesha Siddhanta)
  • Concept of taste, potency, biotransformation, & special attribute (Rasa, Virya, Vipaka & Prabhav Siddhanta)
  • Concept of disease (Vyadhi Siddhanta)
  • Concept of treatment (Chikitsa Siddhanta)
  • Concept of Vitalization & Rejuvination (Rasayana Vajeekarana Siddhanta)
  • Concept of Panchakaarma (Panchakaarma Siddhanta)
  • Concept of acclimatisation (Asstmya Siddhanta)
  • Concept of Health (Sawasthya Siddhanta)
  • Concept of attributes (Guna Siddhanta)
  • Concepts of longevity (Deerghayu Siddhanta)
  • Concepts of obese & thin (Stholya Karshya Siddhanta)
  • Concept of immunity (Vyadhikshamatwa Siddhanta)

Five Element Theory (Panchmahabhuta Siddanta)

In Ayurveda, the five elements are precisely known as Panchmahabhuta which includes space, air, fire, water and earth (these may be referred to as five basic elements).

The functions of the five elements are enumerated below:

  • Space (Akasha): Space is present everywhere. It serves as basic substance for smooth functioning of the other elements.
  • Air (Vayu): Air is moving force of the body as it ensures movements of the biological humours or Tridosha (Vata, Pitta and Kapha). Air element is largely responsible for oxygen supply to cells and tissues.
  • Fire (Agni): Fire element fulfils heat requirement of human body and results in produces of the radiant energy. Fire element is vital for metabolic (anabolic or catabolic) and biochemical pathways operating inside the human body.
  • Water (Jala): Water is essential constituent of the universe (macrocosm) and human body (microcosm). Water constitutes 70% of human body and is essential for carrying out physiological functions.
  • Earth or ether (Prithavi): Earth is nothing but solid state of matter and acquires the state of stable equilibrium. Earth plays important role in make-up of human anatomy. Human nutrition also depends upon food from the Earth.

Three Biologial Humours Theory (Tridosha Siddanta)

Ayurveda is based on peculiar fundamental principles like Tridosha (three humors vata, pitta and kapha) theory, and Panch-mahabhuta (five elements ether, air, fire, water and earth) theory. Imbalance of the three humors is considered to be the root cause of the disease.

  • Vata is a combination of air and ether.
  • Pitta is combination of earth and fire.
  • Kapha is a combination of ether and water.

Triguna or Manas Dosha Theory

Triguna theory provides platform for understanding personality as a dimension of the human behaviour attempt. Dhulla in research article named "A New Approach to Indian Philosophy and Personality – A Study" explains the interrelated dynamics of Triguna. According to her, Gunas inherited by an individual can be changed due to psychological, physical and social influences. The behaviour of an individual is determined by the personality operating at that time.

Characteristics of Triguna

  • Sattva Guna is characetisied by happiness, positive attitude, lightness, lightness, consciousness and spiritual connection. Sattvic state is diseased free body of the body.
  • Rajas Guna is supposed to be most active among Satva, Rajas and Tamas. Rajas Guna is characterised by motion and stimulation. Wish to achievement and passion are outcome of Rajas Guna.
  • Tamas Guna has two typical features, heaviness and resistance. heaviness stimulates negative attitude in the mind and induces apathy, sleep and lethargy.

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