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Basti Karma (Medicated Enema)- All you need to know about this Panchakarma Therapy

Abstract

Ayurveda is a Traditional system of medicine. It originated in India more than 5,000 years ago. This Traditional system of medicine understands the body as a constitution of Panchmahabhuta or great elements. These five great elements are Prithavi (Earth), Akash (Space), agni (Fire), Jala (Water) and Vayu (Wind/Air). As per their dominance in the body the physical and energetic qualities in the body are represented. Ayurveda is based on the belief that health along with wellness are because of the delicate balance between mind, body and spirit. There are three energies in the body: Kinetic energy, Potential energy and Thermal energies. Due to imbalance in these three energies, the body lands with various diseases. But Ayurveda has solutions to all the problems and for the imbalance of doshas there are specific procedures which are explained with their Purva (pre procedure steps) and paschat karma (Post procedure steps) along with Pradhan karma (Steps for main procedure). Like in case of excessive kapha dosha (potential energy) Vamana or emesis procedure is advised, excess of pitta (Thermal energy) is resolved with Virechana (Purgation) and aggravated vata (kinetic energy) is taken care with Basti (Medicated enema). In this article we will discuss in detail about the Basti (Medicated Enema).

Basti Karma, Medicated Enema, Panchakarma, Therapy, Basti Treatment in Ayurveda, Vasti, Therapeutic Enema, Types Of Basti, Basti Administration, Chaturdash Basti Yoga Ratan, Madhu tailik basti, Vetran Basti, Pichag basti, Ksheer Basti, Shukar vardhak Basti, Yukt rath basti, Krimi Ghana Basti, Lekhan Basti, Chakshu kshaya Basti, Mutra krich basti, Sheet Pitthar basti, Rakat basti, Uttar Basti, Shiro Basti, Method Of Administration, Basti Preparation, Basti Panchakarma Benefits

Introduction

Basti is understood as medicated Enema which is given through anal route and in Ayurveda is the Adho Chikitsa (50% treatment) or Purna Chikitsa (100% treatment) for Conditions which are due to the excess of Vata dosha or kinetic energy in the body. In Ayurveda texts, it is mentioned that there are a total of 80 Vikaar which are  due to excessive kinetic energy and for those 80 Vikaar or diseases, disorders or conditions, Basti (medicated Enema) is the best procedure to be followed. The enema is generally prepared with herbal decoctions, oils and then is inserted in the rectum with the help of basti netra attached to basti putak.

So, moving forward let’s discuss details about basti. The details start from the factors which are to be considered before administration of basti, Details about Apparatus used to give basti, Types of basti, how to prepare basti alongw with some specific basti explanation etc.

Now, We start with All the details related to Basti.

Details Regarding Basti (Medicated Enema)

Factors To Be Considered Before Administration Of Basti

समीक्ष्य दोषौषधदेशकालसात्म्याग्निसत्त्वादिवयोबलानि|
बस्तिः प्रयुक्तो नियतं गुणाय स्यात् सर्वकर्माणि च सिद्धिमन्ति||
(Charak Samhita Siddhi Sthana 3/6)

Basti Is To Be Administered After The Careful Examination Of The Following

  • Dosha (Vitiated Doshas)
  • Desha (Place if living along with body of patient)
  • Aushadha (Potency of Drugs)
  • Kala (Season, Time of administration of Basti)
  • Satmya (Accustom/ Things accepted by Body)
  • Agni (Digestive fire/Power and its state; Poor, Mild, moderate, strong)
  • Sattva (Mind)
  • Oka (Habitual due to regular use)
  • Vaya (Age), Bala (Strength)

Details Regarding The Apparatus Used For Basti Administration

Though there are Modern ways to give Enema but the ancient ways to prepare enema and specifications mentioned in the texts are really great. The details are as follows:

  • The Basti Netra is prepared with materials like gold, Silver, Copper, Bronze, Cow’s horn, bones of animals etc.
  • For the patients of age 6, 20 and 12 years, the length of Basti Netra or nozzle apparatus varies as well. For the age 6 basti netra should be six Angula long, for 20 years it must be 12 Angula long and for 12 years it must be 8 Angula long.
  • The caliber of the hole present inside the nozzle should allow the passage of green gram, jujube berry and peanut. This hole must be corked with varti (A wick).
  • The circumference of its top and base should be the same as the little finger and thumb of the patient.
  • The nozzle should be straight and tapering like the tail of a cow.
  • With the nozzle urinary bladder of the animals like buffalo, sheep, goat, cow etc is to be attached. Nowadays silicon bags are preferred.

So now we Know that in Ayurveda texts Basti was described as a very detailed process and thus it tends to give impressive results in many condition with predominance of Vata dosha (Excessive kinetic energy).

Further in the article we will discuss various types of Basti and how they are used in different types of conditions.

Types Of Basti (Medicated Enema)

Basti, as mentioned before, is a medicated enema which is really helpful in various types of conditions due to excessive Kinetic energy in the body.There are many types of Basti and they have subtypes as well. The types are according to Adhishthan, According to number, According to the constituents used and many others. Following are the types of Basti (Medicated Enema):

  • Adhishtana Bheda
  • Dravya Bheda
  • Based On function (Karmukta Aadhar)
  • Anushangika Bheda
  • On the basis of numbers

Explanation Of Types

Adhishtana Bheda

This type is based on the site of Administration. It include the following bastis:

  • Pakwashaya Gata Basti: It is administered into the large intestine through anal route. This helps in balancing the excess of vata dosha in the body and helps in cleansing the toxins as well from the large intestine or pakwashaya. Vata is the chief controller of the movements going on inside the body along with peristaltic movements as well. But due to excess of this vata dosha there can be some dysfunction in the same which can be corrected by this type of Basti.
  • Garbhashaya Gata Basti: This is given through the vaginal route into the womb of a female. It helps in controlling and setting down the morbid vata. Morbid vata, In case of females, can cause a lot of reproductive system related problems. With this type of Basti, such problems can be recovered. Problems like infertility, low egg quality etc. can be easily managed with Garbhashaya Gata Basti.
  • Mutrashaya Gata Basti: Mutrashaya gata Basti is given into the Urinary Bladder. It is given through the urethra or urethral route for both men and women. It helps in various conditions related to bladder like urinary incontinence, weakened musculature of urinary bladder etc.
  • Vrana Gata: This type of Basti is given directly into sinuses and wounds. It helps in quicker healing, cleansing the wound and sinuses as well.

Dravya Bheda

Dravya Bheda is differentiated according to the liquid which is used to prepare basti. On the basis of this the basti are further divided into following:

  • Niruha Basti: It is also called kshaya basti and Asthapana basti. Niruha is called Niruha Basti as it eliminates the morbid doshas. Nirooha means to eliminate.
  • Madhu Tailika Basti: It is a variant of niruha basti. According to the name of this basti it has madhu (Honey) and taila (Oil) as its main ingredients. It has synonyms like Yapana Basti, siddha basti and yukta ratha basti.    
  • Anuvasana Basti: The anuvasana basti is also called as sneha basti. It has sneha as its key ingredient. Aacharya Sushruta also called it snaihika basti. The word anuvasana means to stay. This basti tends to stay longer in the intestine, bladder or uterus. This type of basti can be given on a regular basis. It has three subtypes which are according to the amount of sneha used in their preparation:
    • Sneha Basti
    • Anuvasana Basti
    • Matra Basti
      • Kshir basti
      • Amla kanija Basti
      • Mansa rasa Basti
      • Gomutra Basti

Based On Function (Karmukta Aadhar)

Every type of basti has its own role. Like some Basti are for detoxification, Nourishment etc. So, according to the function of the basti following are its type:

  • Shodhana Basti: Shodhana means to detoxify. So, medicated enema that helps in detoxification of the body is called Shodhana Basti. This type of basti is given in arthritis, bone related disorders like cervical spondylitis, in case of conditions involving nerves like sciatica, in muscle spasm, sexual disorders, slip disc and many more. It helps in pacification of vata dosha.
  • Lekhana Basti: Lekhana basti is one of the medicated herbal enemas that works by scraping off the toxins from the body. This is mainly an Apatarpaka type of Basti and its ingredients are having properties like drying, are of sharp nature and have micro channel cleansing effect. It is mainly used in obesity and in cases of higher Body mass index.
  • Snehan Basti: Snehan basti has sneha as its ingredient. Here sneha means oils and ghrita. Various types of oils and ghrit are used in order to pacify the vata dosha. The basic thing that sneha basti does is strengthen the body.
  • Brimhana Basti: This type of basti is given to promote the bulk of the body. It helps in enhancing muscle mass in the body and improves the quality as well as quantity of the cells in the body.

Anushangika Bheda

This type of Basti has following types:

  • Prasarita Yogika
  • Dvadhasha Prasrita
  • Padha hina Basti
  • Tikshna Basti
  • Mridhu basti
  • Picha basti
  • Rakta Basti
  • Yapana basti
  • Siddha Basti

On The Basis Of Numbers

त्रिंशन्मताः कर्म नु बस्तयो हि कालस्ततोऽर्धेन ततश्च योगः||
सान्वासना द्वादश वै निरूहाः प्राक् स्नेह एकः परतश्च पञ्च|
काले त्रयोऽन्ते पुरतस्तथैकः स्नेहा निरूहान्तरिताश्च षट् स्युः||
योगे निरूहास्त्रय एव देयाः स्नेहाश्च पञ्चैव परादिमध्याः|
(Charak Samhita Siddhi Sthana 3/47-49)

The basti or medicated enema is classified on the basis of specific schedule and sequential sessions as well. This is based on the severity of dosha and dushyas. There are three types of number based basti. These are as follows:

  • Karma basti: Karma basti  has a total of 30 basti included. Out of 30, 12 are decoction based that are called as niruha and other 18 are unctuous which are called as anuvasana.  
  • Kala basti: Total session of basti included in kala basti is 16. 6 Decoction based basti (niruha basti) and 10 unctuous basti (anuvasana basti).
  • Yoga basti: Total of 8 basti sessions are given. Three are of niruha basti and five are of anuvasana basti.

Now, moving forward we will discuss in detail about some specific types of basti along with their ingredients, per ingredient quantity, preparation and specific disorders of administration. These types are the most popular ones and give good results in various types of conditions.

Chaturdash Basti Yoga Ratan (14 Most Popular Medicated Enema)

  1. Madhu tailik basti
  2. Vetran Basti
  3. Pichag basti
  4. Ksheer Basti
  5. Shukar vardhak Basti
  6. Yukt rath basti
  7. Krimi Ghana Basti
  8. Lekhan Basti
  9. Chakshu kshaya Basti
  10. Mutra krich basti
  11. Sheet Pitthar basti 
  12. Rakat basti
  13. Uttar Basti
  14. Shiro Basti

Details Regarding Above Mentioned 14 Types

1. Madhu Tailik Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Madhu (Honey) 20ml
2. Til Oil (Sesame Oil) 20ml
3. Saunf Churna (Fennel Seed Powder) 10gm
4. Saindhav Lavan (Pink Salt) 10gm
5. Madanaphala Churna (Randia Spinosa Powder) 10gm
6. Errand Mool Kwath (Ricinus Communis Decoction) 100ml

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Prepare decoction of Erand mool churna. Take 50 gms of Erand mool churna and mix in 1 litre of water. Boil it till it reduces to 100 ml.
  • Add pink salt in mortar and grind it well. Now add fennel seed powder and madanaphala powder. Mix it well in honey and sesame oil.
  • Now add decoction of errand moola and mix well.
  • Madhu tailik basti is prepared.

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • In Vata predominance disorders
  • Prameha (Diabetes)
  • Gulma (Abdominal tumors)
  • Arsh (Piles)
  • Antara vriddhi (Hernia)
  • Krimi (Parasitic infestation)
  • Kushtha (Skin Conditions)
  • Udavarta (Reverse movement of vata dosha)

Also it has a nourishing impact on the body. This type of basti is also having a rejuvenating impact on the body.

2. Vetran Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Cow's Milk 500ml
2. Til Taila (Seasme Oil) 50ml
3. Tamarind Juice 50ml
4. Guddh 20ml
5. Pink Salt 10ml

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Take 50 grams of tamarind and 20 grams of guddh. Add it in water (According to need) and warm the water. Once the mixture is prepared, remove the vessel from the stove.
  • Now add this in 500 ml of cow’s milk. On the other side, grind pink salt in Mortar and add sesame oil. Add Rest of the ingredients.

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Aam vaat (Rheumatic arthritis)
  • Gridrasi (Sciatica)
  • Shoola (pricking pain), Anaha (Flatulence)
  • In Vata predominance disorders

3. Pichag Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Mochras (Bombax Malabaricum) 80gm
2. Lodhra (Symplocos Racemosa) 20gm
3. Kutaj (Holarrhena Antidysentrica) 10gm
4. Water For Decoction 800ml
5. Residue Of Decoction 200ml
6. Milk 50ml
7. Ghrita 10ml

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Prepare decoction of lodhra, Mochras and kutaj by adding them in 800 ml of water. Boil until the mixture reduces to 200 ml.
  • Then add this residual decoction to milk and mix ghrita.
  • This basti is to be given in a duration of one hour and every minute 5 cc of the quantity is to be administered.

Used In Following Disorders:-

Raktaj pravahika (recurrent defecation with blood).

4. Ksheer Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Shatavari Siddh Milk 100ml
2. Ghrita 20ml
3. Til Taila (Sesame Oil) 20ml
4. Madhu (Honey) 20ml

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Take 500 grams of shatavari and add in 100 ml of milk and water.
  • Boil to the point when milk is left behind as remnant.
  • Mix Ghrita, sesame oil and honey.
  • Now add all these ingredients into remnant milk and Ksheer Basti is ready.

Used In Following Disorders:-

Asthi majja gata vata dosha

5. Shukar Vardhak Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Ashwagandha Decoction 100ml
2. Milk 50ml
3. Honey 20ml
4. Sesame Oil 20ml
5. Go Ghrita 20ml
6. Saindhav Lavan (Pink Salt) 5gm

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Make a decoction of 50 grams of Ashwagandha powder in 800 ml of water. Boil the mixture till it reduces to 100 ml.
  • Now add Milk, honey, Ghrita and sesame oil along with pink salt to the above decoction.

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Shukar Vardhak (Enhances semen quantity)
  • Bala Vardhak (Enhances bodily strength)

6. Yukt Rath Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Erand Mool Kwath 100ml
2. Madhu 20ml
3. Sesame Oil 10ml
4. Vacha 10gm
5. Pippali 10gm
6. Madan Phala 10gm
7. Saindhav Lavan (Pink Salt) 10gm

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Erand Mool churna (50 grams) is added into one litre of water and then boiled until it reduces to 100 ml. 
  • Add saindhav lavan or pink salt into mortar, grind it well  and then add pippali, vacha, madan phala to it. Grind all of the ingredients well and then add sesame oil, Erand mool decoction and mix them well together.

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Helps in all Vata dominant disorders.
  • It's a Great Rejuvenator.

7. Krimi Ghana Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Triphala Decoction 100ml
2. Vidanga Powder 10gm
3. Nagarmotha Powder 10gm
4. Shigru Powder 10gm
5. Madan Phala Churna 10gm

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Prepare triphala kwath
  • Then add vidanga kwath, nagar motha powder, shigru powder and madan phala powder into the decoction
  • This Basti is to be taken when it is lukewarm

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Anthelmintic effect
  • Defecation after this medicated enema contains worms with faeces

8. Lekhan Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Triphala Decoction 100ml
2. Go Mutra 50ml
3. Madhu 20ml
4. Yav Khsaar 10gm

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Prepare triphala kwath
  • Then add Gomutra, madhu (Honey) and Yav kshar in the decoction of triphala
  • The basti is prepared and ready to be administered

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • It helps in obesity and reduction of visceral fat as well

9. Chakshu Kshaya Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Madhu Tesik Yoga 170gm
2. Yashti Madhu Powder 30gm

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Madhu tesik Yoga is to be mixed with Yashtimadhu powder
  • After the enema is prepared its administration is done

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Enhances eyesight
  • Helps in eye disorders

10. Mutra Krich Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Gokshur Kwath 100ml
2. Pasan Bheda 10gm
3. Yashtimadhu 10gm
4. Mishri 10gm

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Prepare decoction of gokshura
  • Now add rest of the ingredients to this decoction and thus administer the prepared basti

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Helps in Urinary disorders (Mutrakrich)

11. Sheet Pitthar Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Gairik (Red Ochre)/ Silicate Of Alumina 10gm
2. Water 25ml

Method Of Preparation:-

  • Clean filtered water in a quantity of 25 ml is mixed with 10 gms of Gairik.
  • This basti is filled in 25 ml syringe and is administered slowly

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Urticaria (Sheet pitta)

12. Rakat Basti (Jeevan Dan Basti)

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Blood Of Humans Or Specific Animals Like Goat 100-150ml

Method Of Preparation:-

N/A

Used In Following Disorders:-

N/A

13. Uttar Basti

Garbha Dharanat

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Phalkalyan ghrit 150ml

Method Of Administration:-

Basti is given with the help of a syringe. The administration should be slow and the syringe should be of 20 ml capacity.

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Helps in Infertility

Putarhani Rajohar Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Ghrit Of Kutaj And Gambhi ----

Method Of Administration:-

Basti is given with the help of a syringe. The administration should be slow and the syringe should be of 20 ml capacity.

Used In Following Disorders:-

  • Recurrent Abortions
  • Recurrent Miscarriage

Garbhashaya Ansh Har Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Kwath Of Jyotish Mati, Ashwagandha, Moch Ras, Lodhra And Panch Valkal Kwath ----

Method Of Administration:-

Basti is given with the help of a syringe. The administration should be slow and the syringe should be of 20 ml capacity.

Used In Following Disorders:-

Uterus Prolapse/Vaginal Prolapse

14. Shiro Basti

Sr. No. Ingredient Name Quantity
1. Dhanvantaram Oil ----

Method Of Administration:-

It is to be administered for 41 days

Used In Following Disorders:-

In shero roga (In head disorders)

Follow Up Regimen After Basti Administration

प्रत्यागते कोष्णजलावसिक्तः शाल्यन्नमद्यात्तनुना रसेन|
जीर्णे तु सायं लघु चाल्पमात्रं भुक्तोऽनुवास्यः परिबृंहणार्थम्||
निरूहपादांशसमेन तैलेनाम्लानिलघ्नौषधसाधितेन|
दत्त्वा स्फिचौ पाणितलेन हन्यात् स्नेहस्य शीघ्रागमरक्षणार्थम्||
ईषच्च पादाङ्गुलियुग्ममाञ्छेदुत्तानदेहस्य तलौ प्रमृज्यात्|
स्नेहेन पार्ष्ण्यङ्गुलिपिण्डिकाश्च ये चास्य गात्रावयवा रुगार्ताः||
तांश्चावमद्गीत सुखं ततश्च निद्रामुपासीत कृतोपधानः||
(Charak Samhita Siddhi Sthana 3/27-30)

There is a follow up regimen that is to be followed After Basti administration or after administration of medicated enema. Following are the things which are to considered:

After expulsion of basti dravya patient is sprinkled with tepid water

Special diet regimen is followed which contains shali rice along with meat soup.

When the previous meal is digested the patient is given light food to eat. Thereafter administration of anuvasana basti is given for overall nourishment. The quantity of anuvasha basti should be one fourth the quantity of niruha basti. It is done with medicated oil cooked by adding amla and vataghna dravyas.

The patient should lie in supine position and the toe joints of both of the legs should be pulled gently. In addition, the heel, calf and other painful joints are to be massaged with oil. Hence the patient should rest comfortably by keeping head over the pillow.

Herbal Powders To Be Used In Basti Preparation By Planet Ayurveda

Planet Ayurveda is a leading herbal products manufacturing company who has its resellers around the world. Planet Ayurveda has many products which can be used in various conditions and hence give relief from a variety of symptoms. The company has been in the market for more than 20 years and is giving best quality products to the consumers. Planet Ayurveda also has certification of Halal, kosher, FDA and other certifications too. In addition, all of the products are prepared with pure herbs, no addition of fillers, dyes, additives, adulterants etc. Planet ayurveda also has products which can be used for the preparation of basti or medicated enema. These products are prepared with the finest quality of herbs and give desirable results in patients after being used. Ashwagandha powder, Shatavari powder, Lodhra Powder, Erandmool Powder, Kutaj powder, Vidang powder and Gokshur powder are manufactured by Planet Ayurveda and can be used for preparation of basti or medicated enema.

Conclusion

As mentioned above in the article the basti or medicated enema is having a lot of benefits. The basti is a procedure which is included in panchkarma and has various sites for its administration like womb, large bowels, urinary bladder and others. Basti is also done locally like kati basti, griva basti etc targeting the local sites of the body like nape of neck, lower back etc. In this article we have discussed the specifications of basti along with its effect on the body. We have also discussed the enema nozzle and its size at various ages. Basti is a procedure which needs to be done under the guidance of expert supervision as doing it in an inappropriate way can cause serious negative effects on the body.

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Author Bio:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

MD (ALT. MEDICINE)

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Reviewed By:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan

MD (AYURVEDA)

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