Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 12 (Vatakalakaliya Adhyaya)
This book's chapter, the Nirdesha Chatushka, is based on research conducted by an Ayurvedic expert panel led by Atreya that examined the healthy and unhealthy activities of the tridosha. The vata dosha is described more briefly throughout the three doshas due to its dominance as the start of all bodily activities. Vata dosha is also in charge of numerous weather phenomena in the environment, including extreme cold, heat, and rain. This chapter also discusses the significant normal and dysfunctional roles of vata in the environment. As a result, brief explanations of the normal and odd functions of the kapha and pitta dosha have been given. So in this section, we will discuss the Charaka Samhita chapter twelfth Vatakalakaliya Adhyaya in brief.
Since ancient times, Ayurveda has recognized the combination of all the aforementioned controlling aspects (Such as the threefold organization or system, etc.) and the notion of a person's physical constitution. All constructive, recuperative, assimilative, integrative, eliminating, and assimilative activities are examined as part of the constitution and function of the tridosha as a cohesive unit. These ideas are comprehensive and serve as the cornerstone for a thorough understanding of how the body and mind work together. A tridosha that is in balance promotes health, but one that is out of balance either numerically or qualitatively causes disease. When vitiated, the tridosha is thought to be the root of the disease and either gives a tendency to morbidities or causes them. Doshas can get out of balance and vitiate, which in turn can affect other physical and operational components of the body. They also go by the name "dhatus" since they help the body maintain its homeostasis, which stands for normalcy. A disease-free condition is the dosha equilibrium state, also known as arogata or samyata. On the other hand, a diseased condition results from a departure from the equilibrium state. When the unbalanced doshas begin to vitiate the body, they are also referred to as malas. Further reading in this chapter will make it abundantly clear that the activities of the vata dosha closely resemble those of the neurological system as well as any other system that regulates, signals, transmits, or controls information or any other system in the human body.
Discussion And Queries At The Conference
In reference to the knowledge about merits and demerits of vata, the sages, with a view to knowing one another's viewpoint put forth the questions for mutual discussion:-
- What characteristics does vata have?
- What is the cause of its vitiation?
- What is the cause of its pacification?
- How are the various components that make up the vata dosha, which is difficult to approach because of its ethereal and unstable character, inflamed and subdued?
- What are its functions in the body or outside in case of its vitiation or normalcy?
Qualities Of The Vata Dosha
Then Sankruti's descendant Kusha spoke: "The six characteristics of vata are coarseness, instability, lightness, roughness, instability, coldness, and non sliminess.
Kumarashira Bharadvaja's Opinions
Having heard this statement, Kumarashira Bhardvaja said-you have said correctly, these are the properties of vata. That vayu gets vitiated due to prolonged use of measures having similar properties, substances, and effects because prolonged use of similar properties is the cause of the increase in dhatus.
Individuals Applicable For The Lowest Dose And Its Uses
The old, the delicate, the children, the ease-living, those for which the empty bowels are not beneficial, have low digestion and are suffering from chronic fever, diarrhea, and cough, have poor strength, should take the low dose of unction. This is easy in precautions, is unctuous and nourishing, promotes virility and strength, is free from complication, and continues for a long time.
Causes Of Vitiation And Pacification Of Vata Dosha
Having heard this, Kankayana, the physician from Bahlika, said-this is as you said, those very factors are the vitiating causes of vata and those having opposite properties are the pacifying factors as the opposite to vitiating factors is the cause of pacification of dhatus. Having heard this, Badisha Dhamargava said-you have said correctly, sir, these are verily the factors vitiating or pacifying vata. Now I am explaining how these factors without coming in contact with the formless and unstable vata exert their vitiating or pacifying action. The vata vitiating factors produce roughness, hardness, lightness, hollowness, coarseness, coldness, and non sliminess in the body parts, and vayu finding a favourable environment there gets located in those body parts and because of nourishment gets vitiated. On the contrary, the vata pacifying factors produce hotness, unctuousness, softness, solidity, heaviness, smoothness, and sliminess. Thus vayu moving in such body parts finds no location and as such gets pacified.
Functions Of Vata Dosha
Having heard the correct statement as approved by the groups of sages, the royal sage Varyovida said this is all free from fallacy as you said, sir. Now I shall describe, as far as possible, after bowing to Lord Vayu and confirming each item by perception, inference, and authoritative sources, the effects of vayu vitiated or unvitiated, manifested in or outside the body.
The five types of vayu—udana, prana, vyana, apana, and samana- when they all are unvitiated then they regulate these functions like initiate movements downward and upward, control and regulate thought, make use of all sense organs for their function, causes all bodily dhatus to form structurally, encourages body unification, stimulates speech, produces touch and sound, is the source of the tactile and auditory senses, and is the root of excitement, and bravery, agni (Digestion) stimulation, dosha absorption, excreta elimination, formation of the subtle and gross channels, foetal development, and lifespan maintenance.
When it is vitiated in the body, it afflicts it with various disorders and thereby affects strength, happiness, lifespan, and complexion, agitates the mind, impacts every sensory organ, deforms, destroys or long-term restricts the embryo, grief, produces fear, anxiety, excessive delirium, and confusion, and the vital breath is stopped at the conclusion.
The balanced vayu, travel throughout the body performs the functions like it maintains the earth, ignites the fire, disposing constant motion of the moon, the sun, and the groups of planets and stars, forms the clouds, conduct the rain, causes the streams to flow, producing fruits and flowers, causes the germination of plants, splits the seasons, divides the dhatus, manifesting the shape and measure of dhatus, brings strength to the seeds, plants growth, eliminate excessive moisture, and conduct transformation everywhere.
When it moves about in nature in the vitiated condition it shows these effects such as breaks the mountains peak, earthquakes, generate large tides in the oceans, motion of clouds along with sound, cross current in the river, overflowing of the lakes, the breaking of trees, showering of dust, dew, thunder, sand, snake, fish, stone, alkali, blood and thunderstorm, non-compactness of crops, six seasons deranged, brings creatures complication, displacing the favourable elements with unfavourable ones and releasing the clouds, sun, fire and wind which ends all four ages.
Vayu is one of the powerful, unstoppable producers who turns negative traits on humans and creates both happiness and pain. He assumes several forms, penetrates all systems, and is Death, Yama (The god of death), Prajapati (The master of the beings), regulator, Viswa, Aditi and Karma (Performing all kinds of roles), is subtle amid things, widespread, Vishnu (Protector) moves throughout all of nature, and what more is there to say but that Vayu himself is the Lord (All-Powerful).
Opinions Of Marichi
Having heard the statement of Varyovida, Marichi said-even if it is so, what is the relevance of this in exposition or knowledge of medicine because this symposium is convened in relation to medicine?
Individuals Who Are Able To Consume Bone Marrow
When the persons to be oleated are those having a good appetite, tolerance, and gluttony, using unction habitually, afflicted with vata, with hard bowels should take marrow. Thus the uncting substances have been described according to their suitability in different cases.
Varyovida replied-If a physician does not realize the importance of vayu which is too strong, too rough, too quick acting and causing emergent conditions, how would he be able to protect against further aggravation of suddenly vitiated vayu, in spite of best efforts, or prior to this to prevent the emergency. The sincere regard for vayu, too, is conducive to health, improvement of strength and complexion, valour, improvement of knowledge, development, and maximum expanse of life span.
Marichi's Opinions On The Roles Of Agni And Pitta
Marichi said Agni itself, which is included in pitta in the body, is responsible for producing wholesome or unwholesome effects in vitiated or unvitiated states respectively. Such as digestion-indigestion, vision or non-vision, normal or abnormal complexion and body heat, fear, joy, anger, valour, attachment, confusion, happiness, clarity, and other such duals.
Kapya's Opinions On Kapha And Its Functions
Having heard the statement of Marichi, Kapya said it is soma included in kapha gives rise to good or bad effects in vitiated or unvitiated conditions respectively, such as firmness-laxity, development-emaciation, enthusiasm, idleness, potency-impotency, knowledge-ignorance, understanding-confusion and other such duals.
Atreya's Final Thoughts
Having heard the statement of Kapya, Lord Punarvasu Atreya said all of you have said correctly except the non-exclusive statement. In the balanced state, all vata, kapha and pitta give the person unmodified organs of perception, strength, happiness, and complexion, also longevity as a virtue, prosperity, and pleasure pursued in the right way bestow the individual with immense well-being both here and in the world to come, on the contrary, in the abnormal state, they give rise to severe abnormalities as three seasons, when abnormal, produce harmful effects in the world, particularly at the time of final destruction.
This conclusive statement of Lord Atreya was concurred in and applauded by all the sages.
Here it is said-Having listened to the statement of Lord Atreya, all the sages concurred in and applauded the words of Indra by the gods.
This chapter on the benefits and drawbacks of the vata has explanations for its six characteristics, two categories of causes (Aggravating and pacifying factors), numerous functions, four components (Related to normalcy and vitiation both inside and outside the body), the roles of pitta and kapha, opinions of the sages, and the conclusion by Lord Atreya. The vata dosha is the most powerful of the three doshas since it controls all bodily functions, including the activity of the remaining two doshas, as well as any systems involved in the regulation, signalling, control, and conduction of any systems or information in the bodies.