Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 19 (Ashtodariya Adhyaya)
Following up from the prior chapter, this one explores disease classifications. Here, diseases have been basically categorised into two groups: one group, called Samanyaja Vyadhi, focuses on illnesses brought on by the presence of two or more doshas, while the other group, called Nanatmaja Vyadhi, is concerned with illnesses brought on by the presence of just one dosha. In this chapter, 48 illnesses have been presented along with their diagnostic categories. Dosha's function in the development of diseases, the distinction between endogenous and exogenous diseases, and the coexistence of these diseases are all discussed. The scope of a one-to-one association between these illness entities and those in traditional medicine is limited. Some of the illnesses mentioned in this section can be properly associated with illnesses treated by traditional medicine, while others cannot. So today we will discuss the Charaka Samhita Sutra sthana chapter nineteenth Ashtodariya adhyaya in detail.
The Roga Chatushka's (The tetrad on diseases) section on diseases contains descriptions of significant disease principles. The chapter before gave a more comprehensive description of how dosha vitiation causes a wide range of illnesses, as well as variances in symptoms, terminology, pain, signs, aetiology, and sites of creation and presentation. Only the most serious illnesses, apparently common at the period, have been categorised in order to recommend treatments. There are several locations in the Charak Samhita where these known ailments have been classified using the qualities listed above along with a few additional factors like chronicity, prognosis, treatment, etc. Following a thorough analysis, we discover that the illnesses have been divided into categories with one to eight diseases apiece. At the end, three disease categories with a total of 20 types were categorised.
Classifying Diseases Numerically
There are eight udara rogas, eight types of suppression of urine, eight defects of breast milk, eight defects of semen, seven types of leprosy, seven diabetic boils, seven types of erysipelas, six types of diarrhoea, six types of udavarta, five types of gulma, five disorders of spleen, five types of cough, five types of dyspnea, five types of hiccup, five types of thirst, five types of vomiting, five types of anorexia, five head diseases, five heart disorders, five types of anaemia, five types of insanity, four types of epilepsy, four eye diseases, four ear diseases, four types of coryza, four mouth diseases, four diseases of grahani, four types of intoxication, four types of fainting, four types of wasting, four types of impotency, three types of swelling, three types of vitiligo, three types of internal haemorrhage, two types of fever, two types of wounds, two types of contractures, two types of sciatica, two types of jaundice, two types of ama, two types of vatarakta, two types of piles, one urustambha, one coma, one type of mahagada, twenty groups of krimis, twenty types of prameha, twenty types of yonivyapat. Thus forty eight disease syndromes have been mentioned in this context.
Types Of Diseases
Diseases Of Eight Types
In the same sequence that they were previously listed, these illnesses will be explained in detail.
- Eight types of abdominal diseases (Udara roga) are vatodara, pittodara, kaphodara, sannipatodara, plihodara (Due to splenic disorder), baddhodara (Due to intestinal obstruction), chidrodara (Due to intestinal perforation) and dakodara (Ascites).
- Eight types of suppression of urine (Mutraghata) are due to vata, pitta, kapha, sannipata, ashmari (Due to stone in urinary tract), sharkara (Due to gravels in urinary tract), shukra (Due to spermolith) and shonita (Due to hematoma).
- Eight defects of breast milk are abnormal colour, abnormal smell, abnormal taste, sliminess, frothiness, roughness, heaviness and excess of fat.
- Eight types of defective semen are dilute (Tanu), dry, frothy, whitish, putrid, over slimy, mixed with other materials, precipitating.
Diseases Of Seven Types
- Seven types of leprosy are udumbara, kapala, mandala, udumbara, pundarika, rishyajihwa, kakanaka and sidhma.
- Seven diabetic boils are kachhapika, sharavika, sarshapi, jalini, vinata, vidradhi and alaji.
- Seven types of erysipelas (Visarpa) are those caused by vata, pitta, kapha, sannipata, agni, granthi and kardama.
Diseases Of Six Types
- Six types of diarrhoea are those caused by vata, pitta, kapha, sannipata, shokaja (Caused by grief) and bhayaja (Caused by fear).
- Six types of udavarta (Upward movement of vayu) are those caused by mutraja (Suppression of urine), vataja (Suppression of flatus), shukraja (Suppression of ejaculation of semen), purishaja (Suppression of faeces), kshavathuja (Suppression of sneezing) and chhardija (Suppression of vomiting).
Diseases Of Five Types
- Five types of gulma (Abdominal tumour/ lump) are those caused by vata, pitta, kapha, sannipata and rakta.
- There are five pliha doshas (Splenic illnesses) that are of exactly the same type as gulma.
- Five types of cough (Kasa) are there due to vata, pitta, kapha, kshaya (Wasting) and kshata (Injury).
- Five types of dyspnoea (Shwasa) are mahashwasa, chhinna shwasa (Intermittent), urdhwashwasa, kshudra shwasa (Dyspnoea due to exertion) and tamaka shwasa (Bronchial asthma).
- Five types of hiccup (Hikka) are gambhira, mahati, kshudra, vyapeta and annaja.
- Five types of thirst (Trishna) are vata,pitta, kshayaja (due to wasting), upsargaja (secondary to other diseases) and amaja.
- Five types of vomiting (Chhardi) are vata, pitta, kapha, sannipata and dwistarthsangyogaja (Exposure with obnoxious articles).
- Five types of anorexia (Bhaktasyanasana) are vata, pitta,kapha, sannipata and dweshaja (Repugnance).
- Five types of head diseases (Shiroroga) are vata, pitta, kapha, sannipata and krimi (Parasitic infection).
- Five types of heart diseases (Hridroga) are exactly the same as head diseases.
- Five types of anaemia (Pandu) are vata, pitta, kapha, sannipata and mridbhakshanaja (Due to eating of clay).
- Five types of insanity (Unmada) are vata,pitta,kapha, sannipata and aagantuja (Exogenous causes).
Diseases Of Four Types
- Four types of epilepsy (Apasmara) are vata, pitta, kapha and sannipata.
- Four types of eye diseases (Akshiroga)
- Four types of ear diseases (Karna roga)
- Four types of coryza (Pratishyaya)
- Four types of mouth diseases (Mukha roga)
- Four types of malabsorption disorders (Grahani)
- Four types of intoxication (Mada roga)
- Four types of fainting (Murcha) are having similar types as apasmara.
- Four types of wasting (Shosha) are sandharanaja (Suppression of natural urges), sahasaja (Over strain), vishamashanaja (Irregularities in diet) and kshayaja (Wasting).
- Four types of impotency (Klaibya) are dhwajabhangaja (Erectile dysfunction), beejopaghataja (Genetic defect), shukrakshayaja (Decreased sperm production) and jaraaja (Senility).
Diseases Of Three Types
- Vata, pitta, and kapha are the three different kinds of shothas (Swellings).
- There are three different colours of kilasas (Vitiligo):- tamra (Coppery), shukla (White) and rakta (Red).
- Urdhabhagam (From upper channels), adhobhagam (From lower channels), and ubhayabhagam (From both channels) are three different forms of lohitatapittas (Coagulopathies).
Diseases Of Two Types
- Two types of fever (Jwara) are one caused by cold and amenable to heat (Ushnabhipraya shitasamuttha) and other caused by heat and amenable to cold (Shitabhipraya ushnasamuttha).
- Two types of wounds (Vrana) are caused by endogenous (Nija) and exogenous (Agantuja).
- Two types of contracture are bahya (External) and abhyantara (Internal).
- Two types of sciatica (Gridhrasi ) are vataja and vata-kaphaja.
- Two types of jaundice (Kamala) are shakhashraya (Obstructive jaundice) and koshthashraya (Pre-hepatic & hepatic jaundice).
- Two types of ama (Toxins) are visuchika (Food poisoning/cholera) and alasaka (Intestinal torpor).
- Two types of gout (Vatarakta) are uttana (Superficial) and gambheera (Deep).
- Two types of piles (Arsha) are aardra (Bleeding masses) and shushka (Non bleeding masses).
Diseases Of One Type
- The combination of ama and the three doshas caused one urustambha (Spastic paraplegia).
- Coma (Sanyasa) is one caused due to three doshas and involves both body and mind.
- Mahagada is one which is caused by atattvabhinivesha (Moral and mental perversion).
Diseases Of Twenty Types
Twenty Types Of Parasites (Krimis) Are:-
- Two types of those which are produced by external excreta namely pipilika (Ticks) and yuka (Lice).
- Six are produced in blood namely-lomada, jantumatara, audumbara, lomadwipa, saurasa and kesada.
- Seven due to kapha namely udaraveshta, churu, saugandhika, hridayada, antrada, mahaguda and darbhapushpa.
- Five in faeces makeruka, sashulaka, kakeruka, sausurada and leliha.
Twenty Types Of Prameha Are:-
- Kaphaja prameha (10):- ikshuvalikarasameha (Glycosuria), shuklameha, sandraprasadameha, shitameha, udakameha (Polyuria), sandrameha, shukrameha, shanairmeha, lalameha and sikatameha.
- Pittaja prameha (6):- kalameha, lohitameha, ksharameha, nilameha, haridrameha and manjisthameha.
- Vataja prameha (4):- majjameha, madhumeha, hastimeha and vasameha.
Twenty Types Of Gynaecological Disorders (Yoni Vyapadas)
- By dosa :- vatika, paittika, kaphaja and sannipatika.
- The sixteen that are left are brought on by different dushya, dosha, and other triggering factor combinations. These are arajaska (Amenorrhoea), raktayoni (Menorrhagia), prakcharana (Deflorative vaginitis), upapluta (Secondary dysmenorrhoea), acharana (Colpitis mycotica), paripluta (Acute vaginitis), aticharana (Chronic vaginitis), putraghini (Abortive tendency), suchimukhi (Colpo stenosis), udavartini (Primary dysmenorrhoea), sushka (Culpo xerosis), karinini (Endo-cervitis), vamini (Profluvium seminis), mahayoni (Prolapse of the uterus), sandhyayoni (Pseudo-uterus) and antarmukhi (Inversion of uterus).
Relation Between Dosha And Disease
The aggravation of vata, kapha, and pitta is the primary cause of the occurrence of all endogenous ailments. Similar to how a bird cannot cross its own shadow by just flying all day, all diseases are caused by disruptions in the balance of the dhatu and are unable to develop without unbalances of the vata, pitta, and kapha doshas. Any sickness can be identified by a qualified doctor by looking at the location, signs, and symptoms as well as the causes of vata, pitta, and kapha vitiation in any condition.
Endogenous And Exogenous Diseases
Numerous ailments are caused by disturbances in the dhatu's equilibrium, and these can only be caused by pitta, vata and kapha, indicating that these three doshas are necessary for their production. Exogenous illnesses are an exception.
Endogenous And Exogenous Disease Progression
Exogenous diseases can arise secondary to endogenous diseases, and vice versa. Endogenous diseases can also proceed into exogenous diseases. Before beginning treatment, it is important to thoroughly consider both the primary causes and any additional consequences.
The diseases in each group having twenty, three and one types of disorders, eight diseases having two types, twelve diseases with five types, ten diseases having four types, four diseases having eight types, three diseases with seven types and two diseases with six types have been mentioned in the chapter on the Ashtodariya adhyaya. The manner of disease categorization has changed significantly with the development of science and technology, but the fundamental ideas remain the same. Currently, diseases are categorized based on their etiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, etc. Therefore, the fundamentals are unchanged, but terminology has changed as a result of advances in understanding.