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Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 26 (Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya)

Abstract

The preceding chapter (Yajjah Purushiya) discussed the importance of healthy (Pathya) and unhealthy (Apathya) meals. In this chapter, which contains the names of Lord Atreya and the great sage Bhadrakapya, the effects of both healthy and unhealthy foods and substances are explained by a few notions and pharmacological principles. This text documents the debate of the correlation between diet and rasa. In order to understand the mode of action of medicines and food, fundamental concepts of Ayurvedic pharmacology like as virya (Potency), rasa (taste), vipaka (Taste after digestion), prabhava (Action) and guna (Quality) are addressed. The impact may be observed by closely observing the physiological alterations that follow contact in the body. Six perceived flavours are listed, along with the negative consequences of consuming them in excess. Some dietary items and their combinations have antagonistic qualities that make them incompatible with the body and cause illness. These fall within the viruddha category (incompatible ). This vital concept is explained in order to understand potential drug-food interactions as well as their unfavourable consequences. So today we will read about the Sutra Sthana Chapter twenty six Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya in detail.

Charaka Samhita, Chapter 26, (Atreyabhadrakapyiya Adhyaya)

Introduction

The acharyas envisioned the practical use of Ayurveda based on three fundamental principles: aushadhajnana (Knowledge of therapeutics), lingajnana (Symptomatology), and hetujnana (Knowledge of cause). Both distant and immediate causes of illnesses are included in etiology. The indications and manifestations of illnesses and wellness are referred to as symptomatology. As part of the ongoing series on dietetics tetrad (Annapana chatushka), this chapter focuses on knowing the fundamentals of Ayurvedic pharmacology. Therapeutics and materia medica are included in aushadhajnana. The elements of dhatu samyata (Balance of dosha, tissue etc.) can be restored to good health through the restoration of samavaya (Permanent concomitance or relationship), vishesha (Results in exclusivity), samanya (Results in similarity), karma (Action), guna (Quality), and dravya (Matter).

Discussion On Diet And Rasa

Conferencing Participants

Atreya, Bhadrakapya (Descendant of Shakunta), Hiranyaksha (Descendant of Kushika), Purnakshasha (Descendant of Mudgala), Bharadwaja, the virtuous one, Kumarashira, Nimi (King of Videha), Varyovida (King and the intelligent among the wise), Kankayana Bahlika (Excellent among the doctors of Bahlika), Badisha (Great scholar)- This renowned sage, who was well-versed in study, age, and restraint, once went on a blissful journey to the beautiful Chaitraratha forest. They had a historic conversation about the relationship between diet and rasa while they were seated.

Discussion On Taste (Rasa)

Bhadrakapya said, there is just one rasa, that is one of the five sense objects, perceived by tongue, and similar to water. There are two rasas, the Shakunta-descendant brahmana replied, and these are pacifying and eliminating. Mudgala's descendant Purnakaksha described three rasas: pacifying, eliminating, and general (Having both characteristics). Kushika's descendant Hiranyaksha described four rasas: impalatable wholesome, impalatable unwholesome, palatable wholesome and palatable unwholesome. According to Kumarashira Bharadwaja, there are five rasas, which originate from the five fundamental elements: jala, prithvi, vayu, agni and akasha. Vayorvida, a king sage, described six rasas: heavy, cold, light, hot, rough and unctuous. There are seven rasas, said Videha's king Nimi, which include sweet, saline, sour, pungent, bitter, alkaline and astringent. Eight rasas, stated Badisha and Dhamargava, including sweet, saline, sour, bitter, pungent, alkaline, astringent and unmanifested. Bahlika's physician, Kankayana, stated that there are an infinite number of rasas since there are an infinite number of variables, including substratum (Material), attribute, taste and action.

Lord Atreya's Conclusion

Rasas are just six: amla (Sour), madhura (Sweet), katu (Pungent), lavana (Saline), kashaya (Astringent) and tikta (Bitter) said Lord Punarvasu Atreya. Water is their primary source. The two actions—pacification and elimination—are somewhat confused with one another. However, palatability is a matter of personal preference. Effects can be both healthy and unhealthy. In reality, the base of rasas is made up of components of five mahabhutas (Prithvi, vayu, jala, agni and akasha), which vary according to natural composition, preparation, products, location, and time. These substrata, called dravya (Substance or drug), have qualities such as being heavy, cold, light, hot, rough, unctuous, etc. The word ksharana, which means to have been spilled out or to have a corrosive action, gives rise to the title Kshara. It's not a taste (Rasa), but rather a dravya made by combining several rasas, mainly lavana (Saline) and katu (Pungent) and is prepared using a specific technique. Anurasa (Secondary rasa), the primal source of rasa, and the material containing anurasa are all unmanifested. The notion that there are an infinite number of rasas due to an infinite number of causes, such as substratum, is not acceptable, as even an one rasa retains its identity while being related to an infinite number of factors. There is no infinite number of its original source, natural qualities, or activities, even in mixtures of rasas. The wise people do not explain how the merged rasas work because of this. Taking this fact into consideration, will characterize each of the six separated rasas independently.

Panchamahabhuta

The Characteristics And Actions Of The Five Elements

अग्रे तु तावद्द्रव्यभेदमभिप्रेत्य किञ्चिदभिधास्यामः।
सर्वं द्रव्यं पाञ्चभौतिकमस्मिन्नर्थे; तच्चेतनावदचेतनं च, तस्य गुणाः शब्दादयो गुर्वादयश्च द्रवान्ताः, कर्म
पञ्चविधमुक्तं वमनादि।।

I'll start by sharing some information on the medicines. The five bhutas that make up a drug in this context are prithvi, vayu, tejas, apa, and akasha. There are two varieties of it: insentient and sentient. Its attributes are shabda, etc. and range from guru to drava, as well as its actions are described as five-fold (Vamana, etc.).

Actions And Characteristics Of Panchamahabhuta

तत्रद्रव्याणिगुरुखरकठिनमन्दस्थिरविशदसान्द्रस्थूलगन्धगुणबहुलानि पार्थिवानि,
तान्युपचयसङ्घातगौरवस्थैर्यकराणि;
द्रवस्निग्धशीतमन्दमृदुपिच्छिलरसगुणबहुलान्याप्यानि, तान्युपक्लेदस्नेहबन्धविष्यन्दमार्दवप्रह्लादकराणि;
उष्णतीक्ष्णसूक्ष्मलघुरूक्षविशदरूपगुणबहुलान्याग्नेयानि, तानि दाहपाकप्रभाप्रकाशवर्णकराणि;
लघुशीतरूक्षखरविशदसूक्ष्मस्पर्शगुणबहुलानि वायव्यानि, तानि रौक्ष्यग्लानिविचारवैशद्यलाघवकराणि;
मृदुलघुसूक्ष्मश्लक्ष्णशब्दगुणबहुलान्याकाशात्मकानि, तानि मार्दवसौषिर्यलाघवकराणि।। (11)

Parthiva Dravya Characteristics

Drugs (Dravyas) that have characteristics of khara (Coarse), manda (Slow), guru (Heavy), kathina (Hard), sthira (Stable), sthula (Gross), sandra (Solid), vishada (Non-slimy) have parthiva predominant gandha guna (That is primarily formed of parthiva mahabhuta) exert actions such as sanghata (Compactness), sthairya (Firmness), gaurava (Heaviness) and upachaya (Development).

Jala Dravya Characteristics

Those having characteristics of snigdha (Unctuous), drava (Liquid), manda (Slow), sheeta (Cold), pichchila (Slimy), mridu (Soft),as well as the predominant taste is jala or apya, which is made up mainly of jala mahabhuta exert actions such as sneha (Unction), vishyanda (Oozing), upakleda (Moistening), bandha (Binding), pralhad (Exhilaration) and mardava (Softening).

Agni Dravya Characteristics

Dravyas having characteristics of tikshna (Sharp), laghu (Light), ushna (Hot), sukshma (Minute), vishada (Non-slimy), ruksha (Rough) as well as the predominant rupa is agni which is made up mainly of agni mahabhuta and produce paka (Digestion), daha (Burning), varna (Complexion), prabha (Lustre), and prakash (Light).

Vayavya Dravya Characteristics

Dravyas having predominant characteristics of sheeta (Cold), khara (Coarse), laghu (Light), ruksha (Rough), sukshma (Minute), vishada (Non-slimy) as well as sparsh is vayavya which is made up mainly of vayu mahabhuta and produce actions like glani (Depression), vaishdya (Non-sliminess), laghava (Lightness), raukshya (Roughness) and vichara (Movement).

Akashiya Dravya Characteristics

Dravyas having predominant characteristics of laghu (light), mridu (soft), shlakshna (smooth), sukshma (minute) as well as shabda is akashiya which is made up mainly of akash mahabhuta and produce actions like hollowing, making light and softening.

Panchamahabhuta's Existence In The Universe

अनेनोपदेशेन नानौषधिभूतं जगति किञ्चिद्द्रव्यमुपलभ्यते
तां तां युक्तिमर्थं च तं तमभिप्रेत्य।। (12)

As a result, anything in the cosmos may be utilized as a medication as long as it is done so rationally and with a clear goal in mind.

Description Of The Drug's Action

न तु केवलं गुणप्रभावादेव द्रव्याणि कार्मुकाणि भवन्ति; द्रव्याणि हि
द्रव्यप्रभावाद्गुणप्रभावाद्द्रव्यगुणप्रभावाच्च तस्मिंस्तस्मिन् काले तत्तदधिकरणमासाद्य तां तां च युक्तिमर्थं च
तं तमभिप्रेत्य यत् कुर्वन्ति, तत् कर्म; येन कुर्विन्ति, तद्वीर्यं; यत्र कुर्वन्ति, तदधिकरणं; यदा कुर्वन्ति, स
कालः; यथा कुर्वन्ति, स उपायः; यत् साधयन्ति, तत् फलम्।। (13)

The way of action of medicines involves more than just their qualities; in addition to their intrinsic properties and composition, they also have a specific mechanism and purpose, which combine at a certain time and place to produce their activity. Their actions are called karma (Activity), their means of action are veerya (Potency), their location of action is adhikarana, their timing is kala (Time), their method of action is upaya (Mechanism), and their outcome is phalam (Result).

Description Of The Rasa Concept

Ras Combinations

The following sections identify sixty-three different varieties of rasas categorized by substance, location, and time.

Fifteen different combinations may be made by combining two rasas, like sweet (Madhura) with sour etc. and amla (Sour) with others.

Similarly, by combining three rasas together, there are fifteen substances such as sweet and sour that get combined separately with two of the remaining rasas, similarly, sweet and saline, and sweet and pungent with two of the remaining rasas. Sour and saline with the remaining two rasas, sour and pungent, and saline and pungent have also similar combinations. Five rasas combined together make six, single rasas separately make six and six rasas combined together make one. Thus according to various combinations of rasas the types of substances come to sixty three.

The number sixty three becomes innumerable considering the rasas and anurasas because rasas transgress the number on account of their relative degrees.

Therefore, based on their suitability, experts of rasa have listed fifty-seven amalgamations and sixty-three types of rasas.

In order to achieve success, the doctor should deliver rasas, either in their purest forms or in mixtures depending on medications, doshas, etc. When treating illnesses, knowledgeable doctors provide medications consisting of mixtures of more than one rasas, etc., as well as the single rasa or combination separately (As needed).

Someone who is knowledgeable about the variances of rasas and doshas makes no errors when diagnosing an illness and deciding its course of therapy.

Rasa is the initial perception of the material in its dry form. The opposite, which is sensed later and is a medicine in a moist state, is called anurasa (Subsidiary taste). The unmanifested seventh rasa does not exist.

Guna (Properties)

परापरत्वे युक्तिश्च सङ्ख्या संयोग एव च। विभागश्च पृथक्त्वं च परिमाणमथापि च।। (29)
संस्कारोऽभ्यास इत्येते गुणा ज्ञेयाः परादयः। सिद्ध्युपायाश्चिकित्साया लक्षणैस्तान् प्रचक्ष्महे।। (30)
देशकालवयोमानपाकवीर्यरसादिषु। परापरत्वे, युक्तिश्च योजना या तु युज्यते।। (31)
सङ्ख्या स्याद्गणितं, योगः सह संयोग उच्यते। द्रव्याणां द्वन्द्वसर्वैककर्मजोऽनित्य एव च।। (32)
विभागस्तु विभक्तिः स्याद्वियोगो भागशो ग्रहः। पृथक्त्वं स्यादसंयोगो वैलक्षण्यमनेकता।। (33)
परिमाणं पुनर्मानं, संस्कारः करणं मतम्। भावाभ्यसनमभ्यासः शीलनं सततक्रिया।। (34)
इति स्वलक्षणैरुक्ता गुणाः सर्वे परादयः। चिकित्सा यैरविदितैर्न यथावत् प्रवर्तते।। (35)

Paratva (Excellence), yukti (Rationale), aparatva (Non-excellence), sankhya (Enumeration), vibhaga (Disjunction), samyoga (Conjunction), abhyasa (Practice), prithaktva (Separateness), sanskara (Processing) and parimana (Measurement): we refer to these attributes as paradi (Starting with para). These are the keys to success in therapy, I'm going to define. Place, measure, time, vipaka, age, rasa, veerya, and other concepts are all discussed in connection to paratva and aparatva. The logical planning of therapeutic measures is called yukti. Mathematics (Including statistics) is Sankhya. Samyoga is the joining together (Of entities). There are three categories for this based on whether one, all, or both partners actively participate. It is not everlasting. Additionally, there are three sorts of vibhaga: bhagaso graha (Division), viyoga (Disjoining), and vibhakti (Excision). There are three sorts of prithaktva : anekata (Individual separateness), vailaksanya (Class separateness), and asamyoga (Spatial separateness). Measures (Of all kinds, including weights) are indicated by parimana. Processing is samskara. Abhyasa means habit, practice, and constant usage. As a result, each of the paradi characteristics is defined and explained; if these definitions are not understood, the therapy cannot proceed as intended. It is not stated that properties are located in properties. Considering the author's differing objectives, a doctor should thus interpret rasas; qualities as those of dravyas.

Therefore, one should determine the meaning only after taking into account the author's objectives, the context, the location and time, and the scriptural techniques (Such as tantrayukti).

In the following, I shall explain the six rasa divisions and how the pancha mahabhuta is the source of all rasas.

Development And Basic Constitution Of Rasa

सौम्याः खल्वापोऽन्तरिक्षप्रभवाः प्रकृतिशीता लघ्व्यश्चाव्यक्तरसाश्च, तास्त्वन्तरिक्षाद्भ्रश्यमाना भ्रष्टाश्च
पञ्चमहाभूतगुणसमन्विता जङ्गमस्थावराणां भूतानां मूर्तीरभिप्रीणयन्ति, तासु मूर्तिषु षडभिमूर्च्छन्ति रसाः।। (39)

Water is primarily made of soma (Jala), which is produced in the sky, is innately cold and light, and has unmanifested rasas (Taste). This acquires the qualities of the five mahabhuta as it falls from the sky, and when it lands (On the ground), it provides nourishment to the physical body of plants and animals. Six rasas appear in the water during this process.

तेषां षण्णां रसानां सोमगुणातिरेकान्मधुरो रसः, पृथिव्यग्निभूयिष्ठत्वादम्लः, सलिलाग्निभूयिष्ठत्वाल्लवणः,
वाय्वग्निभूयिष्ठत्वात् कटुकः, वाय्वाकाशातिरिक्तत्वात्तिक्तः, पवनपृथिवीव्यतिरेकात् कषाय इति। एवमेषां
रसानां षट्त्वमुपपन्नं न्यूनातिरेकविशेषान्महाभूतानां भूतानामिव स्थावरजङ्गमानां नानावर्णाकृतिविशेषाः;
षडृतुकत्वाच्च कालस्योपपन्नो महाभूतानां न्यूनातिरेकविशेषः।। (40)

Of the six rasas, soma (Apa) produces the madhura rasa, amla is produced by agni and prithvi, lavana is produced by agni and apa, katu is produced by agni and vayu, tikta is produced by akasha and vayu, and kashaya is produced by prithvi and vayu. As a result, the six rasa manifestations—which include different animal and plant forms and complexions—occur according to the excess and shortage of mahabhutas. The six seasons of kala (Time factor) make it possible for mahabhuta to be in both excess and shortage.

तत्राग्निमारुतात्मका रसाः प्रायेणोर्ध्वभाजः, लाघवादुत्प्लवनत्वाच् वायोरूर्ध्वज्वलनत्वाच्च वह्नेः;
सलिलपृथिव्यात्मकास्तु प्रायेणाधोभाजः, पृथिव्या गुरुत्वान्निम्नगत्वाच्चोदकस्य; व्यामिश्रात्मकाः
पुनरुभयतोभाजः।। (41)

Among them, the rasas containing both vayu and agni frequently go upward due to agni's burning up quality and vayu's rushing up and lightness. Because of the weight of prithvi and the downward tendency of apa (Water), those who are predominant in both prithvi and apa frequently go downwards. People with dual constitutions travel in both directions.

तेषां षण्णां रसानामेकैकस्य यथाद्रव्यं गुणकर्माण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः।। (42)

Now, I will explain every rasa's characteristics and functions in terms of dravyas, or their substrata.

Madhura Rasa's Action And The Impact Of Excessive Use

तत्र, मधुरो रसः शरीरसात्म्याद्रसरुधिरमांसमेदोस्थिमज्जौजःशुक्राभिवर्धन आयुष्यः षडिन्द्रियप्रसादनो
बलवर्णकरः पित्तविषमारुतघ्नस्तृष्णादाहप्रशमनस्त्वच्यः केश्यः कण्ठ्यो बल्यः प्रीणनो जीवनस्तर्पणो बृंहणः
स्थैर्यकरः क्षीणक्षतसन्धानकरो घ्राणमुखकण्ठौष्ठजिह्वाप्रह्लादनो दाहमूर्च्छाप्रशमनः
षट्पदपिपीलिकानामिष्टतमः स्निग्धः शीतो गुरुश्च। स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानः स्थौल्यं
मार्दवमालस्यमतिस्वप्नं गौरवमनन्नाभिलाषमग्नेर्दौर्बल्यमास्यकण्ठयोर्मांसाभिवृद्धिं
श्वासकासप्रतिश्यायालसकशीतज्वरानाहास्यमाधुर्यवमथुसञ्ज्ञास्वरप्रणाशगलगण्डगण्डमालाश्लीपद-
गलशोफबस्तिधमनीगलोपलेपाक्ष्यामयाभिष्यन्दानित्येवम्प्रभृतीन् कफजान् विकारानुपजनयति।। (43.1)

Out of the six rasas, the madhura rasa is most suitable for the body and stimulates rasa dhatu, mamsa, rakta, asthi dhatu, meda dhatu, majja dhatu, shukra and ojas. Additionally, it enhances vigour and lustre, balances vayu and pitta, neutralises toxins, calms heat and thirst, and is pleasant to the six senses. It also helps prolong life. It has beneficial effects on the skin, throat, strength and hair, and is vitalizing, nourishing, bulk-promoting, saturating, and stabilizing. The wounds of the malnourished are encouraged to heal. It relieves fainting, is unctuous, heavy and cold, and is enjoyed by ants and bees. It also gives a pleasant sensation in the nose, throat, mouth, tongue and lips.

While this rasa's numerous benefits, if it is taken alone or in excess, cause softness, obesity, excessive sleep, laziness, loss of appetite, heaviness, weak digestion associated with a low hunger, abnormal enlargement in throat and mouth, cough, alasaka, dyspnea, coryza, fever with chills, mouth sweetness, bowels hardness, loss of voice and consciousness,vomiting, goitre, pharyngitis, filariasis, cervical adenitis, mucous coating in throat, arteries and bladder, conjunctivitis, eye diseases etc.

Amla Rasa's Action And The Impact Of Excessive Use

अम्लो रसो भक्तं रोचयति, अग्निं दीपयति, देहं बृंहयति ऊर्जयति, मनो बोधयति, इन्द्रियाणि दृढीकरोति, बलं
वर्धयति, वातमनुलोमयति, हृदयं तर्पयति, आस्यमास्रावयति, भुक्तमपकर्षयति क्लेदयति जरयति
प्रीणयति, लघुरुष्णः स्निग्धश्च। स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो दन्तान् हर्षयति, तर्षयति
सम्मीलयत्यक्षिणी, संवेजयति लोमानि, कफं विलापयति, पित्तमभिवर्धयति, रक्तं दूषयति,मांसं विदहति
कायं शिथिलीकरोति, क्षीणक्षतकृशदुर्बलानां श्वयथुमापादयति, अपि च
क्षताभिहतदष्टदग्धभग्नशूनप्रच्युतावमूत्रितपरिसर्पितमर्दितच्छिन्नभिन्नविश्लिष्टोद्विद्धोत्पिष्टादीनि
पाचयत्याग्नेयस्वभावात्, परिदहति कण्ठमुरो हृदयं च।। (43.2)

Amla rasa provides food more appetizing, boosts agni, energizes the body, mind conscious, firms the senses, boost strength (Bala), induces vatanulomana (Normal movement of vata), nourish the cardiac system, increases saliva production, moistens, propels, and digests food, provides satisfaction as well as is light, unctuous and hot.

Despite having so many benefits, if utilized alone or in excess, cause teeth sensitive, thirst, closes the eyes, enhances body hairs, aggravates pitta, liquifies kapha, influence blood morbidity, causes inflamed muscles and laxity in the body, creates inflammation in wasted, emaciated, debilitated and injured persons, due to its fire property, it causes wound suppuration, bites, fractures, injuries, burns, dislocations, swellings, toxic stains caused by insects contact and urine, excised, compressed, crushed, punctured and incised etc., and cause burning sensation in the throat, cardiac and chest region.

Lavana Rasa's Action And The Impact Of Excessive Use

लवणो रसः पाचनः क्लेदनो दीपनश्च्यावनश्छेदनो भेदनस्तीक्ष्णः सरो विकास्यधःस्रंस्यवकाशकरो वातहरः
स्तम्भबन्धसङ्घातविधमनः सर्वरसप्रत्यनीकभूतः, आस्यमास्रावयति, कफं विष्यन्दयति, मार्गान्
विशोधयति, सर्वशरीरावयवान् मृदूकरोति, रोचयत्याहारम्, आहारयोगी, नात्यर्थं गुरुः स्निग्ध उष्णश्च। स
एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानः पित्तं कोपयति, रक्तं वर्धयति, तर्षयति, मूर्च्छयति , तापयति
दारयति, कुष्णाति मांसानि, प्रगालयति कुष्ठानि, विषं वर्धयति, शोफान् स्फोटयति, दन्तांश्च्यावयति
पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति, इन्द्रियाण्युपरुणद्भि, वलिपलितखालित्यमापादयति, अपि च
लोहितपित्ताम्लपित्तविसर्पवातरक्तविचर्चिकेन्द्रलुप्तप्रभृतीन्विकारानुपजनयति।। (43.3)

Lavana taste is moistening, pouring, digestive, appetizing, irritant, mass-breaking, expectorant, laxative, quickly spread in the body, space-creating, oozing, diminishes stiffness, vata alleviating, liquefies kapha, viscid, lessening the perception of additional tastes if included in excess, increases saliva production, cleanses channels, provides taste to food, softens the body parts, act as a food supplement. It's not too heavy, hot and unctuous. Despite its many benefits, if taken alone or in excess, this aggravates rakta, vitiates pitta, causes thirst, heat, fainting, tearing, enhances leprosy as well as other sort of skin diseases, sloughing, weakens teeth, aggravates toxins, aggravates inflammations, impairs sense organs, impairs potency, cause wrinkles, baldness and grey hair, and cause diseases such as acid gastritis, internal haemorrhage, gout, erysipelas, alopecia, eczema etc.

Katu Rasa's Action And The Impact Of Excessive Use

कटुको रसो वक्त्रं शोधयति, अग्निं दीपयति, भुक्तं शोषयति, घ्राणमास्रावयति, चक्षुर्विरेचयति,
स्फुटीकरोतीन्द्रियाणि, अलसकश्वयथूपचयोदर्दाभिष्यन्दस्नेहस्वेदक्लेदमलानुपहन्ति, रोचयत्यशनं,
कण्डूर्विनाशयति , व्रणानवसादयति, क्रिमीन् हिनस्ति, मांसं विलिखति, शोणितसङ्घातं भिनत्ति,
बन्धांश्छिनत्ति, मार्गान् विवृणोति, श्लेष्माणं शमयति, लघुरुष्णो रूक्षश्च। स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक
एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो विपाकप्रभावात् पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति, रसवीर्यप्रभावान्मोहयन्ति, ग्लापयति, सादयति,
कर्शयति, मूर्च्छयति, नमयति, तमयति, भ्रमयति, कण्ठं परिदहति, शरीरतापमुपजनयति, बलं क्षिणोति,
तृष्णां जनयति; अपि च वाय्वग्निगुणबाहुल्याद्भ्रमदवथुकम्पतोदभेदैश्चरणभुजपार्श्वपृष्ठप्रभृतिषु मारुतजान्
विकारानुपजनयति।। (43.4)

Katu rasa promoting digestion, cleansing the mouth, absorbing food, clearing the sense organs, causing secretions from the nose and eyes, relieving swelling, alasaka, corpulence, blocked channels, urticarial patches, sweating, unction, dirt, and moisture, depressing wounds, destroying itching, scraping muscles, killing germs, cutting bindings, regulating blood coagulation, pacifying kapha, expanding channels, and being light, rough and hot are all benefits of Katu rasa.

Despite its many benefits, if taken alone or in excess, cause malaise, mental confusion, emaciation, depression, bending, fainting, giddiness, darkness feeling, destroy sexual potency because of its post digestive effect, burning in the throat, loss of strength, thirst and body heat because of its rasa effect and potency and mode of action, additionally, because abundance of air and fire, it develops vata disorders in hands, back, feet, sides etc. specifically with symptoms such as burning pain, dizziness, tremors, tearing and piercing pains.

Tikta Rasa's Action And The Impact Of Excessive Use

तिक्तो रसः स्वयमरोचिष्णुरप्यरोचकघ्नो विषघ्नः क्रिमिघ्नो मूर्च्छादाहकण्डूकुष्ठतृष्णाप्रशमनस्त्वङ्मांसयोः
स्थिरीकरणो ज्वरघ्नो दीपनः पाचनः स्तन्यशोधनो लेखनः
क्लेदमेदोवसामज्जलसीकापूयस्वेदमूत्रपुरीषपित्तश्लेष्मोपशोषणो रूक्षः शीतो लघुश्च। स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक
एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो रौक्ष्यात्खरविषदस्वभावाच्च रसरुधिरमांसमेदोस्थिमज्जशुक्राण्युच्छोषयति
स्रोतसां खरत्वमुपपादयति, बलमादत्ते, कर्शयति, ग्लपयति, मोहयति, भ्रमयति, वदनमुपशोषयति
अपरांश्च वातविकारानुपजनयति।। (43.5)

Bitter (Tikta) taste, though in itself not relishing, is anti-poison, increase appetite, alleviates fainting, itching, burning sensation, thirst and skin disorders, anthelmintic, provides muscles and skin firmness, is appetizer, antipyretic, galacto depurant (Substance that eliminates any negative effects of milk), digestive, absorbs moisture, lekhana (Making thin), reduces fat, marrow, muscle-fat, pus, lymph, sweat, faeces, urine, kapha and pitta, and is cold, light and rough.

Even though this has a lot of benefits, if used alone or excessively, due to coarseness, non- sliminess and roughness, it dries up rakta dhatu (Bood), rasa dhatu (Plasma), meda dhatu (Fat), mamsa dhatu (Muscle), majja dhatu (Bone marrow), shukra dhatu (Semen) and asthi dhatu (Bone), cause channel's coarseness, reduces strength, produces malaise, emaciation, giddiness, mouth dryness, mental confusion and other vata disorders.

Kashaya Rasa's Action And The Impact Of Excessive Use

कषायो रसः संशमनः सङ्ग्राही सन्धानकरः पीडनो रोपणः शोषणः स्तम्भनः श्लेष्मरक्तपित्तप्रशमनः
शरीरक्लेदस्योपयोक्ता रूक्षः शीतोऽलघुश्च। स एवङ्गुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमान आस्यं शोषयति
हृदयं पीडयति, उदरमाध्मापयति, वाचं निगृह्णाति, स्रोतांस्यवबध्नाति, श्यावत्वमापादयति, पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति,
विष्टभ्य जरां गच्छति, वातमूत्रपुरीषरेतांस्यवगृह्णाति, कर्शयति, ग्लपयति, तर्षयति, स्तम्भयति,
खरविशदरूक्षत्वात् पक्षवधग्रहापतानकार्दितप्रभृतींश्च वातविकारानुपजनयति।। (43)

Astringent taste (Kashaya rasa) is union-promoting, astringent, pacifying, healing, checking (Discharges), compressing, absorbing, pacifies pitta, rakta and kapha, utilises fluid of body, is cold, slightly light and rough.

Even though it has so many benefits, if taken alone or in excess, it causes dry mouth, heart- ache, obstructs speech, distended abdomen, darkens complexion, decreased fertility, constricts channels of the body, delays digestion, checks semen, flatus, faeces and urine, produces malaise, emaciation, stiffness, thirst and due to its non-sliminess, roughness and coarseness, causes vata disorders such as convulsions, hemiplegia, facial paralysis, spasm etc.

इत्येवमेते षड्रसाः पृथक्त्वेनैकत्वेन वा मात्रशः सम्यगुपयुज्यमाना उपकाराय भवन्त्यध्यात्मलोकस्य,
अपकारकराः पुनरतोऽन्यथा भवन्त्युपयुज्यमानाः; तान् विद्वानुपकारार्थमेव मात्रशः सम्यगुपयोजयेदिति।। (44)

When utilized in appropriate amounts, these six rasas are good for all people; otherwise, they become toxic. Therefore, in order to profit, the smart should use them appropriately and in the right amounts.

Veerya (Potency)

The material (Medication or food) that is madhura (Sweet) in vipaka (Biotransformation) and rasa, is cold (Sheeta) in potency (Veerya). Similar to this, the material that is ushna (Hot) in veerya which is amla or katu in rasa and vipaka.

When vipaka and veerya match the rasa, the qualities are identified by the rasa itself, as in the situations of chavya-chitraka (Katu-ushna) and milk, ghee, (Madhura-sheeta). The doctor should be aware of (The qualities) in these other circumstances as well, based on rasa. There are a few exceptions to this rule: some substances, even though tikta, kashya, and madhura are hot in potency like brihat pancha moola as well as meat of marshy and aquatic animals. Even if rock salt is lavana and amalaka is amla in rasa, they are not hot in potency. Guduchi, aguru and arka are bitter (Tikta) in taste but hot in potency.

Similar to this, rasa's activities vary as well. Astringent substances like kapittha and purgative substances like amalaka are found in amla rasa. Pungent taste is non-aphrodisiac but shunthi (Zingiber officinale) and pippali (Piper longum) though katurasa are aphrodisiac. Sheeta (Cold) and stambhana (Stopping) are the characteristics of kashaya rasa while haritaki (Though kashaya) is the unique case because it is hot and laxative. Therefore just on the rasa basis, no one can recommend all medications, because differences in characteristics can be seen in individual instances, even among substances with comparable rasa.

The taste has been placed in three degrees of separation based on the perspectives of six renowned guna. Kashaya is the greatest degree, Katu is the medium degree, while Tikta is the lowest degree when it comes to rukshatva (Dryness). Lavana is at the highest point, amla is in the centre, and katuka is at the bottom when it comes to ushnatva, or hotness. Madhura is the greatest degree, amla is in the middle, while lavana is the lowest degree in terms of snigdhatva (Unctuousness).

In terms of supremacy, madhura, tikta and kashaya are ranked according to sheetatwa (Coldness). Madhura is the greatest degree, Kashaya is the next, while Lavana is the lowest degree in terms of gurutva (Heaviness). When laghutva (Lightness) is taken into account, tikta ranks highest, followed by katu then amla. Some people consider lavana to be the lesser of the two light rasas. Hence, taking into account both laghutva (Lightness) and gaurava (Heaviness), lavana is ranked lowest.

Vipaka (Metabolites)

Vipaka will be explained in the following. Materials with rasas of katu, kashaya and tikta, frequently have katu vipaka; amla changes into amla vipaka and lavana and madhura have madhura vipaka. Because of their snigdhatva (Unctuousness), madhura, amla and lavana, rasas are frequently helpful in getting rid of faeces, pee, and flatus.

On the other hand, rukshatva (Dryness) in katu, kashaya and tikta rasas causes obstacles in the removal of flatus, semen, faeces, and urine.

Katu vipaka aggravates vata, obstructs the evacuation of urine and faeces, and damages shukra (Semen). Madhura vipaka elevates semen and kapha and aids in the body's expulsion of waste products like faeces and urine. Amla vipaka destroys semen, aids in the expulsion of urine and faeces, and aggravates pitta. Among them, the two amla and katu vipakas are light (Laghu), while madhura vipaka is heavy (Guru).

The degrees (Lowest, medium, and greatest) of vipaka vary in accordance with differences in guna (Properties).

A few people maintain that there are eight different types of veerya: tiksna (Sharp), mridu (Soft), laghu (Light), guru (Heavy), ruksa (Rough), snigdha (Unctuous), sita (Cold) and usna (Hot) while some believe that there are just two types of veeryas: ushna (Hot) and sheeta (Cold). Actually, every single action is the result of veerya, or potency. Without veerya, the material is unable to act; so, it is determined that veerya is the cause of all acts.

Qualities of vipaka, veerya, and rasa

रसो निपाते द्रव्याणां, विपाकः कर्मनिष्ठया। वीर्यं यावदधीवासान्निपाताच्चोपलभ्यते।। (66)

Rasa is felt by the body when it comes into contact with it, especially the tongue. Vipaka is understood (By the action taken) throughout the time from medication administration to excretion, and veerya is recognized by watching the ultimate impact on the body.

Prabhava (specific Influential Effect)

रसवीर्यविपाकानां सामान्यं यत्र लक्ष्यते। विशेषः कर्मणां चैव प्रभावस्तस्य स स्मृतः।। (67)

In situations when there is a variation in action despite similarities in rasa, vipaka, and veerya, this difference is attributed to prabhava (Particular potency).

कटुकः कटुकः पाके वीर्योष्णश्चित्रको मतः। तद्वद्दन्ती प्रभावात्तु विरेचयति मानवम्।। (68)
विषं विषघ्नमुक्तं यत् प्रभावस्तत्र कारणम्। ऊर्ध्वानुलोमिकं यच्च तत् प्रभावप्रभावितम्।। (69)
मणीनां धारणीयानां कर्म यद्विविधात्मकम्। तत् प्रभावकृतं तेषां प्रभावोऽचिन्त्य उच्यते।। (70)
सम्यग्विपाकवीर्याणि प्रभावश्चाप्युदाहृतः। किञ्चिद्रसेन कुरुते कर्म वीर्येण चापरम्।। (71)
द्रव्यं गुणेन पाकेन प्रभावेण च किञ्चन। रसं विपाकस्तौ वीर्यं प्रभावस्तानपोहति।। (72)

For example, chitraka is pungent in taste and vipaka (After digestion taste) and hot in potency, similarly danti but it is purgative (Whereas the former is not). Poison is the remedy to poison, and prabhava is the cause here as well. Similarly, prabhava is the cause of anulomika (Purgatives) and urdhwabhagahara (Emetics). Although the prabhava of gems worn on the body is incomprehensible, their various impacts are likewise caused by prabhava. Vipaka, Veerya, and Prabhava are thus well described. Certain drugs work through the mechanism of rasa, while others work through guna, veerya, prabhava or vipaka. When strength levels are equal, vipaka controls rasa, veerya controls both and prabhava controls all three. These represent the inherent relative strength levels.

How to learn about rasa

बलसाम्ये रसादीनामिति नैसर्गिकं बलम्। षण्णां रसानां विज्ञानमुपदेक्ष्याम्यतः परम्।। (73)
स्नेहनप्रीणनाह्लादमार्दवैरुपलभ्यते। मुखस्थो मधुरश्चास्यं व्याप्नुवँल्लिम्पतीव च।। (74)
दन्तहर्षान्मुखास्रावात् स्वेदनान्मुखबोधनात्। विदाहाच्चास्यकण्ठस्य प्राश्यैवाम्लं रसं वदेत्।। (75)
प्रलीयन् क्लेदविष्यन्दमार्दवं कुरुते मुखे। यः शीघ्रं लवणो ज्ञेयः स विदाहान्मुखस्य च।। (76)
संवेजयेद्यो रसानां निपाते तुदतीव च। विदहन्मुखनासाक्षि संस्रावी स कटुः स्मृतः।। (77)
प्रतिहन्ति निपाते यो रसनं स्वदते न च। स तिक्तो मुखवैशद्यशोषप्रह्लादकारकः।। (78)
वैशद्यस्तम्भजाड्यैर्यो रसनं योजयेद्रसः। बध्नातीव च यः कण्ठं कषायः स विकास्यपि।। (79)

I will now go over each of the six rasas characteristics. Madhura rasa's actions-function, exhilaration, pleasure, and softening-are what make it known. It penetrates the mouth and acts there as though coating.

Teeth that become sensitive after being placed in the mouth, as well as those that exhibit perspiration, salivation, gustatory feelings, burning in the throat and mouth, should be classified as amla rasa.

Lavana rasa dissolves swiftly and leaves the mouth feeling soft, watery, burning, and moist. Anything that is pungent when it comes into touch with the tongue, causing piercing pain and irritates and simulates burning discharges from the mouth, eyes and nose. When something comes into touch with the tongue, it eliminates all other gustatory senses, making it impossible to perceive any other flavour. It also causes non-sliminess and dry mouth, as well as happiness, is tikta rasa.

Kashaya is vikasi in nature and causes non-sliminess, rigidity, and insensibility in the tongue, as though it is suffocating the throat.

After hearing Lord Atreya's depiction, Agnivesha remarked, "Sir, we listened your true and important talk on dravya, karma and guna." We now need a detailed account of the foods that are antagonistic.

Concept Of Viruddha (Incompatibility Or Antagonism)

The substances that go against deha-dhatu behave in a way that is antagonistic to them, according to Lord Atreya's statement to him. Properties, combinations, processing, time, place, dosage, etc., or natural composition may be the source of this antagonistic relationship.

Examples Of Incompatible Substances

तत्र यान्याहारमधिकृत्य भूयिष्ठमुपयुज्यन्ते तेषामेकदेशं वैरोधिकमधिकृत्योपदेक्ष्यामः- न मत्स्यान् पयसा
सहाभ्यवहरेत्, उभयं ह्येतन्मधुरं मधुरविपाकं महाभिष्यन्दि शीतोष्णत्वाद्विरुद्धवीर्यं
विरुद्धवीर्यत्वाच्छोणितप्रदूषणाय महाभिष्यन्दित्वान्मार्गोपरोधाय च।। (82)

I'll start by mentioning the incompatible foods that are commonly consumed, including milk and fish. They are both suffering from madhura rasa. Mahabhishyandi (Great obstructor of the channels) and madhura vipaka, because milk is cold (Sheeta), while fish is hot (Ushna), which is viruddhavirya (Antagonistic in orders of veerya). As a result of the clashing viryas, it aggravates blood, and as a result of being mahabhishyandi, it generates blockage in channels.

After hearing Atreya's reply, Bhadrakapya told Agnivesha, "You can eat any kind of fish with milk, but only one kind of fish-chilchima. That scaly, red-eyed creature with surrounding red stripes and a rohita-like form is frequently seen moving across land. When combined with milk, it is certain to cause one to suffer from either blood issues, vibandha (Constipation), or perhaps pass away.

"No," Lord Atreya responded. "It is not advisable to consume any fish, especially chilchima, with milk since it is a major channel obstructor that causes unpleasant symptoms and agitates amavisha. Meat of aquatic, marshy and domestic animals ought not be consumed in combination with milk, radish, honey, jaggery, black gram, sesamum, germinated grains or lotus stalk because it results in blindness, indistinct voice, deafness, nasal voice, coldness, tremors, dumbness, or even death. The potherb of rohini, pushkara, or (Meat of) pigeon cooked in mustard oil are potherbs that should not be consumed with honey or milk since they might induce blood vessel blockage, epilepsy, atherosclerosis, rohini, goitre, or even death. Milk should not be consumed after consuming radish, arjaka, garlic, tulsi, sigru, etc. due to the risk of skin disorders. The potherb jatuka or the mature fruit of nikucha combined with milk and honey, should be avoided as they can lead to serious illnesses like impotence and cause loss of power, lustre, vigour, and prowess and other severe illnesses. The similarly ripe nikucha fruit shouldn't be consumed with soup made of ghee, jaggery, and blackgram since these ingredients are adverse to one another. Similarly, milk is incompatible with amra, matulunga, amrataka, karamarda, nikucha, mocha, badara, dantashatha, koshamra, jambu, bhavya, kapittha, parawata, tintidika, akshoda, narikela, panasa, amalaka, and dadima, among other fruits and similar substances, sour liquids and non-liquids. Milk is antagonistic to makusthaka, kangu, kulattha, nikucha, black gram and vanaka. The potherb padmottarika (Kusumbha), maireya (Type of wine) and sharkara and honey (Madhu), all combined together are antagonistic, as well as vata aggravated too much. Fried haridraka (Bird) in mustard oil is highly vitiated pitta and is antagonistic. When payasa (Rice cooked in milk) is consumed with mantha (Beverage made from roasted grain flour) after meals, it creates an antagonistic and excessively vitiates kapha. Diarrhoea is caused by cooking the potherb upodika with sesame paste. Meat of bagula (Crane) varuni, a kind of liquor, and kulmasha, which are grains soaked in water and lastly fried, are adverse combinations.The same food that has been fried in lard instantly kills. Instantaneous death results from cooking peacock meat that has been tied to an eranda stick, combining castor oil and wood fuel, and cooking over the fire. Instantaneous death results from eating haridraka meat that has been cooked over a haridraka fire while connected to a haridraka's stick. Instantaneous death is also caused by the same when combined with dust and ash with honey. Death results when frying pippali with fish cooking medium and mixing kakamachi with honey. When someone suffering from heat consumes hot honey, they will die.

Similarly, there is an antagonistic relationship between equal portion of ghee and honey, equal portion of rainwater and honey, lotus seeds and honey, hot water after consuming honey, hot water after consuming bhallataka, stale kakamachi, kampillaka cooked along with buttermilk, as well as bhasa roasted on an iron rod. Consequently, described in terms of the query.

Definition Of Incompatibility (Viruddha)

भवन्ति चात्र श्लोकाः-
यत् किञ्चिद्दोषमास्राव्य न निर्हरति कायतः। आहारजातं तत् सर्वमहितायोपपद्यते।। (85)

The whole medicine or diet that raises the dosha but doesn't get rid of it from the body is bad.

Types Of Incompatibility

Something that is in antagonism to time, place, dose, agni, dosha, suitability, potency, health condition, processing, bowels, indication, contra-indication, order, palatability, combination, cooking, guidelines for eating, richness (in qualities), richness (in qualities), guidelines for eating, are regarded as unhealthy or inappropriate for people to consume.

It would be considered antagonistic in relation to place, materials that are utilized in marshy areas are unctuous and chilly, while those that are employed in desert zones are sharp and harsh.

Similarly, it is counterproductive to consume hot, pungent items in the summer and rough, cold meals in the winter. The antagonism between food and beverages is the same in all four forms of agni.

When consumed in equal amounts, honey and ghee have an antagonistic dosage relationship.

When someone who is used to hot and pungent substances uses cold and sweet ones, it is not appropriate.

Antagonism to dosha is the use of drugs, diets, and behaviours that have qualities comparable to dosha's but are harmful to the individual's way of life.

It is recognized as antagonistic processing when the food turns toxic due to specific processing, as in the example of peacock flesh affixed to a castor stick (eranda).

When cold and hot potency substances are used together, there is a potency antagonistic relationship.

A health problem known as bowel antagonism occurs when a person with hard bowels receives too little medication of moderate intensity that is ineffective in breaking down hard material, whereas a person with soft bowels receives heavy, strong medication. When people who indulge in excessive work, sexual activity, or exercise are given vata-vitiating substances, while people who are excessively sleepy or are inactive are given kapha-vitiating substances, this might lead to opposition about health issues.

When food is consumed before urinating or passing gas, as well as when there is no appetite or extreme hunger, there is antagonism in regards to order. When something is consumed hotly after consuming pig, for example, or coldly after consuming ghee, etc., this is referred to as antagonism about indication as well as contraindication.

When it comes to cooking, antagonistic situations include utilizing faulty or broken fuel, leaving grains undercooked, overcooking them, or burning them. When sour foods are combined with milk, the result is antagonistic.

When it comes to palatability, antagonism is the taking of dislikes. When a material contains overmature, immature, or damaged rasa, there is antagonism with regard to richness (Of characteristics).

If the meal is not consumed in privacy, there is a violation of the regulations. Food consumed in this manner is said to be antagonistic.

Diseases Caused By Incompatibility

षाण्ढ्यान्ध्यवीसर्पदकोदराणां विस्फोटकोन्मादभगन्दराणाम्। मूर्च्छामदाध्मानगलग्रहाणां पाण्ड्वामयस्यामविषस्य चैव।। (102)

किलासकुष्ठग्रहणीगदानां शोथाम्लपित्तज्वरपीनसानाम्। सन्तानदोषस्य तथैव मृत्योर्विरुद्धमन्नं प्रवदन्ति हेतुम्।। (103)

Antagonistic food is results into blindness, impotence, ascites, erysipelas, fistula-in-ano, pustules, fainting, insanity, tympanitis, anaemia, narcosis, throat spasm, leucoderma, ama visha, grahani roga, acid gastritis, leprosy, genetic disorders, oedema, rhinitis, fever, and death also can happen.

Management Of Incompatibility

एषां खल्वपरेषां च वैरोधिकनिमित्तानां व्याधीनामिमे भावाः प्रतिकारा भवन्ति। तद्यथा- वमनं विरेचनं च, तद्विरोधिनां च द्रव्याणां संशमनार्थमुपयोगः, तथाविधैश्च द्रव्यैः पूर्वमभिसंस्कारः शरीरस्येति।। (104)

The aforementioned conditions, as well as those brought on by antagonistic food products, can be managed with emesis, antidotes, purgation for pacification, and earlier training of the body using similar substances.

भवतश्चात्र- विरुद्धाशनजान् रोगान् प्रतिहन्ति विवेचनम्। वमनं शमनं चैव पूर्वं वा हितसेवनम्।। (105)

सात्म्यतोऽल्पतया वाऽपि दीप्ताग्नेस्तरुणस्य च। स्निग्धव्यायामबलिनां विरुद्धं वितथं भवेत्।। (106)

A preceding usage of wholesome material, emesis, purgation, or pacification might ease problems resulting from antagonistic food. Antagonism is countered in young people and those with unction, vigour, physical activity, and tiny amounts and strong digestive powers.

Conclusion

In this section we read about the different point of view of sages about rasa, substances according to actions and qualities, number of substances based on rasa, argument regarding six rasa, definition of anurasa, rasa and paradi gunas, five bhutas division according to rasas, exceptions and characters in qualities and actions of rasas, rasa of three degrees based on guna etc., definition of prabhava and vipaka, the antagonism, its diseases along with its management, qualities of six rasas-all of this has been described in this chapter.

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Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

MD (ALT. MEDICINE)

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Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan

MD (AYURVEDA)

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