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Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 27 (Annapanavidhi Adhyaya)


This chapter discusses several food preparations, especially post-prandial beverages, their qualities, and their positive impact on the body because food is regarded to be both the source of life and the cause of illnesses. Twelve categories have been established based on the kind of edibles and drinks: grains, pulses, vegetables, meat, milk as well as milk products, fruits, alcoholic beverages, green herbs, water, sweet substances like honey as well as useful foods (Ahara upyogi). The description further mentions the application of nutrition in particular medical situations, suggesting that it has therapeutic value. The chapter covers a variety of beverage and food digesting principles based on factors such as habitat, age, component utilized, processing technique, and mixing. An individual's agni, or digestive capacity, is essential for correctly digesting food and producing the expected results. So today we will read about the Sutra Sthana Chapter twenty-seven Annapanavidhi Adhyaya in detail.

Chapter 20, Charaka Samhita, Sutrasthana, Annapanavidhi Adhyaya, Acharya Charaka, Sutrasthana - Chapter 27 (Annapanavidhi Adhyaya), Charak Samhita - Chapter 27, Ayurvedic Aspects


According to Ayurveda, diet is the most significant factor in determining both health and sickness, and it is even thought of as the basis of both life and illness. A balanced diet is thought to be restorative as well as nutritious. Several Vedic texts have also given significance to it. For example, Maharishi Kashyapa believed that food was maha bheshaja, or excellent medicine (Ka.S.Khil-4/5-6). But there are certain distinctions between bheshaja (Medicine) and ahara (Meal); the latter is potency-centric (Veerya pradhana), while the former is taste-centric (Rasa pradhana). The word 'ahara,' which means 'food,' comes from the term 'ahiyate,' which means 'to collect' for the body's nutritional needs. Ahara is a general term that can refer to both Pana (drinks or anything drinking) and anna (Cereals, also meaning solid food). As per Ayurveda, in addition to providing nourishment for the body, a balanced diet keeps the doshas, malas and dhatus in balance.

Impact of Wholesome Food

प्रत्यक्षफलदर्शनात्; तदिन्धनाह्यन्तरग्नेःस्थितिः; तत्सत्त्वमूर्जयति,
तच्छरीरधातुव्यूहबलवर्णेन्द्रियप्रसादकरंयथोक्तमुपसेव्यमानं, विपरीतमहितायसम्पद्यते।। (3)

The learned and the wise think that drinks and food that are appropriate in terms of colour, odour, taste, and texture, when consumed in the proper amounts at the appropriate times of day and season, are the basis of energy and life for all living things. It was by actual observation that this insight was reached. The fuel that sustains agni (Digestive and metabolic process), revitalizes the intellect and encourages the right distribution of bodily components, energy, complexion, and sharpness of the sense organs is nutritious food and a healthy lifestyle. On the other hand, poor nutrition and lifestyle lead to dosha, rasa and dhatu imbalances or vitiation, which in turn causes illnesses.

Natural Qualities

तत्स्वभावादुदक्तंक्लेदयति, लवणंविष्यन्दयति, क्षारःपाचयति, मधुसन्दधाति,
सर्पिःस्नेहयति, क्षीरंजीवयति, मांसंबृंहयति, रसःप्रीणयति, सुराजर्जरीकरोति,
शीधुरवधमति, द्राक्षासवोदीपयति, फाणितमाचिनोति, दधिशोफंजनयति,
पिण्याकशाकंग्लपयति, प्रभूतान्तर्मलोमाषसूपः, दृष्टिशुक्रघ्नःक्षारः,
प्रायःकटुकंवातलमवृष्यंचान्यत्रपिप्पलीविश्वभेषजात्।। (4)

Agnivesha, o! Because of this, we will go into great detail on the facts of food and dietetics to better understand what is healthy and unhealthy. By its nature, water hydrates, salt dissolves, alkali breaks down, honey synthesizes, ghee imparts unctuousness, milk supports life, meat fortifies and provides healing properties, and meat soups provide nourishment. However alcohol makes you old, Sidhu wine makes you thin, grape wine makes you digest more easily, treacle makes you accumulate doshas, curd makes you swell, and green pinyaka makes you tired.

Faecal production is increased by black gram soup. Alkalis are harmful to the eyes and sperm. Except for amla (Emblica officinalis) and pomegranate, all acidic foods are primarily pitta-promoters. All sweet foods, except honey, barley, wheat, older shali rice, and shashtika rice, are often kapha-promoters. Bitter is mostly vata aggravating and non-aphrodisiac except for the tip of vetra, patola and guduchi leaves. Pungent is mostly vata aggravating and non-aphrodisiac except ginger and long pepper.

Categorization Of Food Items

परमतोवर्गसङ्ग्रहेणाहारद्रव्याण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः।। (5)
शूकधान्यशमीधान्यमांसशाकफलाश्रयान्। वर्गान्हरितमद्याम्बुगोरसेक्षुविकारिकान्।। (6)
दशद्वौचापरौवर्गौकृतान्नाहारयोगिनाम्। रसवीर्यविपाकैश्चप्रभावैश्चप्रचक्ष्महे।। (7)

We will now go over the various diet article classes. Owned grains (Sukadhanya), meat (mamsa), fruits (Phala), pulse/legumes (Shamidhanya), vegetables (Saka), wines (Madya), milk and its products (Gorasa), greens (Harita), water (Jala), sugarcane and its products (Iksu), food adjuvant ( Condiments) and cooked food (Krtanna). We will now discuss the flavour, potency, attributes that remain after digestion, and particular features of these.

Class Of Sukadhanya

The general characteristics and types of rice: Maha shali (Big rice), rakta shali (Red rice), shakunahritah, kalamah, dirghashuka, turnaka, panduka, gaurah, basmati rice (Sugandhaka), langulau, sariva, lohavalah, patanaga, pramodakah, tapaniya, etc. are cold, madhura in rasa and vipaka, with little vata, producing formed and a little faeces, unctuous, bulk promoting, semen promoting, and diuretic. Among them, the red sali is the best one, it alleviates thirst and all three doshas. After that is mahasali and thereafter comes kalama and then other varieties. Hayana, yavaka, naisadhaka, pamsuvapya etc. are the inferior varieties of sali which imitate (Good varieties of) sali rice in merits and demerits.

The Characteristics Of Vrihi & Shastika

Shashtika rice is sweet, unctuous, light, and potently cold. It balances and calms the three doshas. The greatest kind of shashtika rice is the white kind; the dark-white version comes in second. Uddaka, varaka, china, ujjvala, sharada, gandhana, kuruvinda and dardura are a little bit of a different quality than shashtika rice. Vrihi rice is heavy, has a sweet flavour, and becomes acidic post-digestion. It also activates the pitta. The patala variety raises tridosha, increases body temperature, and induces frequent urine and bowel movements.

The Characteristics of Shyamaka, Koradusha, and Other Grains

Both common millet, or shyamaka (Echinochloa frumentacea), and sanwa millet, or koradusha (Paspalum scrobiculatum), are light, sweet and astringents in rasa, vata-stimulant, pitta and kapha decreasing, and desiccants. Nivara (Hygroryza aristata), hasti-shyamaka (Echinochloa crus galli), gavedhuka (Coix lacryma-Jobi), toyaparni, ambhyashyamaka, anu, prasantika, Italian millet (Setaria italica), lauhitya, jhinti, varuka (Sorghum halepense), mukunda, garmuti, shibira, varaka (shyambeeja), great millet (Sorghum vulgare) and utkata possess attributes similar to those of shyamaka.

The Characteristics Of Bamboo & Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a dry, cold-potent, light-tasting, sweet grain that elevates excess vata and waste, astringent in action, stabilizes, promotes vigour, and effectively treats kapha discordance. The bamboo is regarded to be sweet, astringent, dry, and beneficial for pitta and kapha dosha. It strengthens and eliminates fat, toxins and worms.

Characteristics Of Wheat

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is sweet, alleviates vata, vitalizing, cold potent, aphrodisiac, stabilizing, heavy, unctuous and nourishing. Madhuli (Eleusine coracana Gaerin) and nandimukh (crowfoot grass) corn have cold potency, are unctuous and sweet. The first section of the monocotyledon portion is now complete.

Class Of Pulses (Di-cotyledons)

Characteristics Of Green Gram (Vigna radiata)

The section involving pulses (Di-cotyledons) now starts. Mudga, or green Gram, is regarded as the finest pulse. It tastes sweet, dry, cold potency, pungent (after digestion), astringent and light. It relieves the pitta and kapha vitiations.

Black grams are a great aphrodisiac and effectively alleviate vata, being unctuous, sweet, hot, strengthening and heavy to digest. The volume of faeces has also increased.

Characteristics Of Black-Eyed Pea (Vigna unguiculata)

The delicious black-eyed pea is a dicotyledon variety with laxative and calming effects on acid-dyspepsia and kapha-shukra diseases. It tastes sweet such as black gram, is dry, clean, astringent, vata-stimulant, and has a heavy digesting process.

Characteristics Of Horse-Gram (Dolichos biflorus)

Dolichos biflorus, often known as horse gram, has a hot, astringent flavour, is acidic after digestion, and helps alleviate vata and kapha shukra imbalances. It helps with piles, dyspepsia, coughing, and hiccups.

Characteristics Of Moth-Gram (Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal)

The moth-gram has a sweet flavour as well as sweet taste after digestion, acts as an astringent, is dry, and has a strong cold potency. In cases of fever, raktapitta, and related ailments, it is advised.

General Characteristics Of Lentil, Chickpea, Common Pea and Vetchling

Legumes, vetchling, chickpeas, and common peas are all light, cold-potent, astringent, sweet in flavour, and highly dehydrating. They are suggested for making nutritious ointments and soups, as well as for kapha and pitta disorders. Of the two, the lentil acts as an astringent, despite the vetchling overstimulating the vata dosha.

Characteristics Of Tila (Sesamum indicum)

Sesamum indicum, or tila, has a hot, astringent, sweet and bitter flavour. It increases vigour, promotes hair and skin growth, and effectively treats vata while aggravating pitta and kapha.

Characteristics Of Legumes

Legume types are all sweet, heavy, dehydrating, cold potency, and destroying strength. They should only be taken by strong individuals and in combination with unctuous items.

A kind of legume known as shimbi jataya is an aphrodisiac, dry, and has an astringent flavour and aggravates vata in the belly. It also affects the eyes adversely and results in irregular and sluggish digestion.

Pigeon-pea stimulates vata and helps in alleviating pitta and kapha dosha, while edagaja seeds (Wild senna) and avalguja (Bakuchi seeds) are beneficial in pacifying vata and kapha. The dolichos lablab (Lablab) stimulates pitta and vata.

Linseed (Linum usitatissimum), cowhage (Mucuna prurita Hook) and sword bean (Mucuna monosperma) have effects that are similar to those of black gram. Consequently, the wise sage discussed the second category of pulses or dicotyledons.

Class Of Mamsa (Meat)

Here are the creatures that are considered "tearers"-that is, those that can rip or tear flesh suitable for human consumption-that may be found in the following categories: ass (Asinus equidae), cow (Bos taurus), camel (Camelus dromedarius), mule, horse (Equus caballus), lion (Felis leo), panther (Felis pardus), monkey (Semnopithecus sp.), bear (Melusus labiatus), tiger (Felis tigris), wolf (Canis lupus), large brown mongoose (Herpestes mungo), hyena (Hyaena striata), mouse (Mus musculus), cat (Felis domesticus), fox (Vulpes bengalensis), hawk (Accipiter gentilis), jackal (Canis aureus), blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), dog (Canis familiaris), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), crow (Corvus splendens), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), Indian horned owl (Bubo bengalensis), vulture (Vulture monachus), owlet (Athene brama), fish-eagle (Pandion heliestus) and sparrow hawk (Ploceus benghalensis).

And these are the animals that burrow that are safe for ingestion by humans: Four types of pythons are dark-brown (Python molurus), black (Python molurus), white (Python molurus), and reticulated (Python reticulatus), and musk shrew (Neomys fodiens), pangolin (Manis pentadactyla), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), frog (Rana sp), gecko lizard (Gekkonidae), iguana lizard (Iguanidae), porcupine (Acanthion leucura), mongoose (Herpestes mungo) and marmot (Marmota).

Animals from wetlands or marshes that are suitable for eating include yak (Poephagus granicus), buffalo (Bos bubalus), wild boar (Sus cristatus), rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), the antelope, swamp deer (Rucervus durancelli), elephant (Elaphus indicus), gayal ox (Bos frontalis), and hog (Cervus porcinus).

The following aquatic creatures are safe for human intake: crab (Brachyura), estuarine crocodile, tortoise (Chelonia), fish (Pisces), pearl oyster (Margaritifera), cat-fish, whale (Cetacea), snails (Gastropoda), Gangetic dolphin (Delphinus gangetica), Gangetic gharial (Crocodylus porosus), great Indian crocodile (Sea monster) and magar (Neomeris phocaenoides)- these animals belong to the category of aquatic foods.

The aquatic animals listed below are suitable for ingestion by humans: demoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo), pelican (Pelicanus onocrotalus), swan (Cygnus olor), goose (Anser albifrons), crane (Balaka, Ardea nivea), scissor bill or skimmer (Rynchops), goliath heron (Ardea goliath), oyster-catcher (Haematopus ostralegus), lily trotter (Ardea sibirica), snake-bird (Mrinalakantha, Plotus anhinga), greylag goose (Kadamba, anser anser), curlew (Keshari, Oedicnemus crepitans), common river tern (Kakatundaka, Sterna hirundo), little cormorant (Madgu, Phalacrocorax pygmeus), white-eyed pochard (Pundarikaksha, Nyroca ferina), moorhen (Ambukukkuti, Gallinula chloropus), mallard(Utkosha, Anas platyrhynchos), avocet (Ara, Recurvirostra avosetta), little grebe (Vati, Podiceps ruficollis), trumpeter swan (Megharava, Cygnus buccinators), petrel (Sahacharin, Oceanitidae), flamingo (Nandimukha, Phoenicopterus roseus), common teal (Rohini, Anas crecca), ruddy shelduck(Chakravaka, Anas sp.), Indian crane (Sarasa, Megalornis grus), laughing gull (Sumukha, Anas galericulata), purple heron (Raktashirshaka, Ardea purpurea), and tropicbird (Kamakali, Phaethon rubricauda).

Among the jangala animals, or wild antelopes, that are suitable for human food are wapiti or elk (Sharabha, Cervus canadensis), spotted deer or chital (Prisata, Cervus axis), mouse deer (Shadamshtra, Tragulus meminna), wild sheep (Urana, Ovis vignei), Kashmir red deer (Rama, Cervus elaphus), rabbit (Shasha, Leporidae), red deer (Mrigamatrika, Cervus elaphus), Indian muntjac (Kottakaraka, Cervus muntjac), gazelle (Charushka, Gazelle bennetti), Indian antelope (Kuranga, Antilope cervicapra), fawn deer (Ena, Cervus rusa), black-tailed deer (kalapucchaka, Odocoileus), cow-eared deer (Gokarna, Antelope picta), Indian sambar (sambhara, Cervus unicolour), Indian antelope (Harina, Antilope cervicapra), small antelope and musk deer (Varapota, Antilope cervicapra).

The gallinaceous birds listed below are suitable for human intake: rain quail (Vartiraka, Coturnix coromandelica), common quail (Lava, Turnix suscitates), Greek pheasant (Chakora, Perdix rufa), red jungle fowl (Raktavartamaka, Gallus ferruginous), jungle bush quail (Vartika, Coturnix sylvatica), crow pheasant (Kukubha, Coccyzus), grey partridge (Kapinjala, Francolinus vulgaris), smaller Greek pheasant (Upachakra, Perdix rufa): these are the gallinaceous birds, starting with the quail. The list of birds will now be listed, starting with button quail or male bustard (Vartaka, Turnix indica), button quail or female bustard (Vartika, Coturnix sylvatica), partridge (Tittiri, Arborophila torqueola), heron (Kanka, Ardeidae), peacock (Barhi, Pavo cristatus), stork (Sarapada, Ciconia boyciana), hill partridge (Gonarda, Ardea sibirica), red spurfowl (Kukkuta, Galloperdix spadicea), mountain quail (Girivartaka, Coturnix coturnix), spoonbill (Varapada, Platalea leucorodia), snipe (Krakara, Ardea virago) and hedge sparrow (Indrabha, Leukocoria aureola).

The Pecker family includes the following birds that are edible for human intake: king bird-of-paradise–shrike (Bhringaraja, Lanalidae), peacock pheasant (Jivajivaka, Chalcurus), red-faced malkoha (Kairata, Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus), black woodpecker (Shatapatra, Picus martius), koel (Kokila, Eudynamys honorata), green-billed coucal (Kojashthi, Centropus chlororhynchos), cowbird (Gopapura, Molothrus), pied flycatcher (Latva, Muscicapidae atricapilla), Bengal tree pie (Babhru-vataha, Dendrocitta rufa), red-vented bulbul (Atyuha, Molpastes haemorrhous), hoopoe (Jati, Upupa indica), Indian babbler (Priyatmaja, Argya caudata), toucan (Dindimantaka, Ramphastos toco), paradise flycatcher (Lattashaka, Muscicapidae techitrea), kingfisher (Lauhaprishtha, Alcedo ispida), dove (Kapota, Chalcophaps indica), grey hornbill (Dundubhi, Lophoceros birostris), weaver bird (Kulingaka, Ploceus benghalensis), babbler (Chirati, Timaliidae), green barbet (Pakkara, Thereiceryx zeylonicus), blossom-headed parakeet (Kanku, Torquatus rosa), ringneck parakeet (Saranga, Palaeonis torquatus), green parakeet (Shuka, Psittacula spengeli), house sparrow (Kalavinka, Passer domesticus), honey-sucker or sunbird (Yastika, Nectariniidae), tree sparrow (Chataka, Passer montanus), mynah (Sharika, Turdus salica), pigeon (Paravata, Columba treron), wood pigeon (Pandanavika, Columba palumbus) and black bulbul (Angarachudaka, Hypsipetes leucocephalus).

We now define the different animal categories mentioned before. The "tearers" are the first group. The animals that rend their food to consume it using their claws, horns or talons-they are referred to as tearers or members of the tearer group of animals. Creatures that burrow are those that live underground. Wetland animals are those that live in marshy or wetlands areas. Certain organisms are referred to as water dwellers or aquatic creatures because they live in the water. Amphibians, or aquatic movers, are defined as those that can move both on land and in water. The term "jangala creatures" refers to antelopes that live and travel in forest environments. Birds classified as gallinaceous are those that disperse food via their claws as well as pick it up, while peckers are those who peck at food. These are eight different types of meat sources. Next, we discuss the general characteristics of these organism's flesh:

These five groups—the burrowers, the amphibians, the wetland, the tearers and the aquatic- are all unctuous, heavy, hot, and sweet, and they all contribute to obesity and increased strength. They strongly aggravate Pitta and Kapha and also serve as aphrodisiacs and are particularly efficient against Vata. They are beneficial for people with strong digestive fires and regular activity.

Patients with chronic piles, assimilation difficulties, and consumption should be prescribed the meat of the tearer category of carnivorous animals by the physician.

Now, the general characteristics of the jangala antelopes, the pecker birds class, and the bustard families and quail of gallinaceous birds. The flesh of gallinaceous birds such as the pecker family, jangala animals and common quail family is sweet, light, cold potency, and a little astringent in flavour. It is effective for people with doshas vitiation, where predominant pitta, moderated vata, and kapha are comparatively less aggravated. The meat of the bustard family of gallinaceous birds, even so, is referred to separately because it functions slightly differently from the tearer group's flesh.

Characteristic Of Sheep And Goat Meat

नातिशीतगुरुस्निग्धं मांसमाजमदोषलम्।। (61)
मांसंमधुरशीतत्वाद्गुरुबृंहणमाविकम्।। (62)
योनावजाविके मिश्रगोचरत्वादनिश्चिते।

The goat's meat (Capra hircus) isn't very cold, unctuous or heavy. It functions as a nourishing agent without having a deliquescent effect and aids in maintaining the dosha in balance with the components of the human body.

The sheep's (Ovis) meat is heavy because it is healthy, delicious to taste (And digest), and very cold. Since both goats and sheep may be found in jangala and wet environments, they cannot be placed in any of the previously mentioned categories.

After stating the broad characteristics of flesh, we will go into the particular traits of the meat of a few of these animals:-

Peacock meat is best for improving intelligence, sight, hearing, youth, complexion, life, voice, and body heat. In addition to being fortifying, it effectively treats vata and encourages the growth of semen and flesh tissues. Swan meat is nutritious, helps balance vata and improves voice, strength, complexion, and semen production. It is also hot, heavy, unctuous, and sweet. The rooster or fowl's meat is hot, unctuous, nourishing and aphrodisiac. In addition, it is a good vata remedy, strengthens the voice, and is sudorific (Causes perspiration).

The partridge's meat is sweet, hot, and heavy. The habitat of the bird is not restricted to jangala country or marshy regions. Meat from partridges quickly balances all three doshas, particularly vata.

The grey partridge's meat has a cool potency, is light and sweet, and is suggested for those with pitta, blood, kapha, as well as mild vata diseases.

The common quail's meat is pungent in the digestion process, astringent, light and sweet. It also effectively enhances digestive fire and balances tridosha. Iguana meat is pungent and astringent digests sweetly, balances pitta and vata, and is both nutritious and fortifying. The pangolin's flesh has a sour and sweet flavour, and it is considered to be pungent after digestion. It works well for alleviating dyspepsia and cough and calms tridosha.

The domestic pigeon's flesh is sweet (During digestion), has an astringent flavour, cold potency, is tender, and is beneficial in alleviating raktapitta. The wild pigeon's flesh is astringent, cold potency, and has a bit lighter texture than the birds previously stated. It also lessens urine output.

The green parakeet's meat is dry, cold-potent, and has an astringent flavour that becomes sour when digested. It helps treat illnesses including consumption, coughing, and wasting. The meat stimulates agni, acts as an astringent, and is easy to digest.

The sparrow's meat is unctuous and sweet, and it works wonders to stimulate semen and vigour while alleviating tridosha, particularly vata. The meat of rabbits is light, sweet, pungent upon digestion, limpid, cold potency, dry, and astringent in flavour. It is advised in cases where vata is not too strong to relieve tridosha.

The blackbuck's flesh has been considered to be cool in potency, sweet (Both in taste and digestion), light, usually healthful, and soothing to tridosha. It also aggravates constipation and suppresses urination.

Hog meat is delicious, sudorific, heavy, eliminates fatigue, strengthens, balances vata, and encourages unctuousness. It is also nutritious and aphrodisiac.

Cow flesh assists in alleviating illnesses caused by vata, dry cough, excessive agni, rhinitis, fatigue, and flesh atrophy. It also helps alleviate vishama jwara (Irregularly patterned fever).

Buffalo meat is hot potency, sweet, unctuous, aphrodisiac, difficult to digest, and nutritious. Additionally, it encourages slumber, corpulence and firmness.

In general, fish flesh is unctuous, alleviates vata, is aphrodisiac, hot potency, sweet-tasting, fortifying, and nutritious. It is also difficult to digest. But it also has a lot of dangerous qualities.

The meat of rohita fish is tasty, easy to digest, and significantly increases strength because it consumes moss as well as does not rest at all.

It is said that tortoise meat aids in treating vata and consumption while also promoting a healthy complexion, vigour, intellect, and memory. It is healthy, aphrodisiac, and good for the eyes.

It is stated that rhinoceros meat is deliquescent, strengthens and completes, and effectively treats vata. It is nutritious, rejuvenating, sweet, and unctuous. The chakor, swan, peacock, rooster, and sparrow eggs are good for pulmonary diseases, cough, cardiac disorders, and oligospermia. They are instantly strengthening, sweet, and non-irritating.

Meat is the only food that is nourishing. As a result, the third category of meat is explained. The third category of meat that can be eaten is now complete.

Class Of Vegetables

The class of veggies now starts. Negro coffee (Cassia occidentalis), patha (Cissampelos pareira), marsilea (or sunishannaka) and shatishaka are regarded as alleviating tridosha and astringent agents. A laxative is termed vastuka. Solanum nigrum, or black nightshade, has several benefits including balancing the three doshas, promoting sexual arousal, promoting rejuvenation, having neither cold nor hot potency, acting as a laxative and effectively alleviating skin lesions.

Euphorbia thymifolia, also known as rajakshavaka, is light-digestible, astringent, and particularly helpful for tridosha alleviation. It is especially advised for people with piles and assimilation issues.

It has been said that the kalashaka, or jute plant (Corchorus capsularis), has an appetizing, pungent taste and can be used to treat oedema and poisoning effects. It is stated that kalaya, or chickling vetch, is hot, light, and dry and that it encourages vata.

Changeri (Oxalis corniculata), is a hot-potent herb, an astringent as well as an appetizer. It helps with piles and assimilation issues and is advised in vata and kapha diseases.

The Indian spinach, or upodika (Basella rubra), has a laxative action, aggravates kapha, is unctuous, cool in potency, and sweet in flavour and digestion. It is also useful in alleviating intoxication.

Amaranthus spinosus, also known as tanduliyaka, is dry, minimizes the symptoms of poisoning and intoxication, and helps with raktapitta. It has a cold potency and a sweet flavour and digestion.

Country willow (Calamus tenuis Roxb.), kuchela/raj-patha, vanatiktaka (Mollugo spergula), Indian pennywort (Centella asiatica), patolam-pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.), sponge gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb), shakuladani- kurroa (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth), avalgujaka-bakuchi seeds (Psoralea corylifolia), vasaka flowers (Adhatoda vasika Nees), kebuka (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), sharngeshtha (Dregea volubilis Benth), wild tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius), elephant's foot (Launaea asplenifolia Hook.f.), hog's weed (Boerhavia diffusa), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus), carilla (Momordica charantia), dog mustard (Cleome icosandra), neem leaves (Azadirachta indica), trailing rungia (Fumaria vaillantti Loisel) and karkasa (Momordica sp.)- these are bitter-tasting, cold-potent, and pungent throughout digestion; they are pitta and kapha regulators. Every pot-herbs:- white dead nettle shrub (Kutumbaka, Lamium album L.), bindweed (Bhanji, Rivea ornata (Roxb.) . chois), kutinjara patra (Digeria muricate (Linn.) Mart), chilli/white goose foot (Chenopodium album Linn.), Bengal hemp plant (Shana, Crotalaria verrucosa Linn.), white mountain ebony (Karbudara, Bauhinia variegata Linn.), all tubers of the aluka (Dioscorea species) variety alongwith their leaves, heliotrope (Suvarchala, Malva rotundifolia Linn.), silk cotton flowers (Shalmalipushpa, Salmalia malabarica Schott), coxcomb (Pattura, Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) R.Br.ex DC), lottaka (Amaranthus tricolor Linn.), lablab (Nishpava, Dolichos lablab Linn.), safflower (Kusumbha, Carthamus tinctorius Linn.), marisha- amaranth (Amaranthus blitum Linn. var. oleracea Duthie), variegated mountain ebony (Kovidara, Bauhinia purpurea Linn), nalini- lotus stalk (Tuber of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), multa jute (Chunchuparnika, Corchorus Sp.), spinach (Palankya, Spinacia oleracea Linn.), prapunnada- fetid cassia (Cassia tora Linn.), kalambanalika (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), kumarajiva (Amaranthus paniculatus Linn.), mustard (asuryah, Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern & Coss), lonika- common Indian purslane (Portulaca quadrifida Linn.), lakshmana, vrikdhumak- young shirish, yavashakam- (Chenopodium purpurascens), kutherakah- shrubby basil (Ocimum sp.), avalgujam-babchi leaves (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.), kushmanda- white gourd (Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cogn.), shalkalyani (Alternanthera sp.), yatuka (Desmodium sp.), peeluparnika- trilobed virgin's bower (Maerua arenaria Hook.F & Th.), triparni- maidenhair (Adiantum lunulatum Burm.): are dry, heavy, digest slowly, sweet, potently cold, as well as loosen the stools. They are suitable for consumption after being boiled, removed from the juice, and then combined with a large amount of unctuous material. Flowers of Bengal hemp- shana pushpa (Crotalaria juncea Linn), karbudara pushpa- white mountain ebony (Bauhinia variegata Linn.), shalmali pushpa- silk cotton (Salmalia malabarica (DC) Schott & Endl) and kovidara pushpa (Bauhinia purpurea Linn) are acts as an astringent and especially recommended for raktapitta.

Leaves of nyagrodha- banyan (Ficus benghalensis Linn), ashvattha- holy fig (Ficus religiosa Linn.), udumbara- gular fig (Ficus racemosa Linn.), padma- lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) and plaksha- yellow barked fig (Ficus lacor Buch-Ham) etc. are styptic, cold-potent, astringent in flavour, and particularly helpful for pitta-type diarrhoea.

Guduchi or vatsadani (Tinospora cordifolia Willd Miers) alleviate vata while chitraka and gandira- white flowered leadwort (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) alleviate kapha. Bilvapatra- bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb.), bilvaparni (Limonia crenulata Roxb.) and shreyasi- elephant pepper (Pluchea lanceolata C.B. Clarke) leaves alleviate vata.

Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd), jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata W.& A.), bhandi (Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) Willd), parvapushpi (Polygonum sp.), leaves of the scutch grass (Polygonum sp.), and bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.) are thought to be beneficial in treating pitta and vata.

Red flowered castor oil (Ricinus communis Linn.) and langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) are bitter, laxative and light. vetasa-goat willow (Salix caprea Linn.), panchangulasyashakam- castor oil (Ricinus sp.) and tila shaka (Sesamum indicum Linn.) are pungent, sour flavour, vata promoters as well as activate the bowel's downward motion. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.) vegetable is hot, acidic, dry, very effective in managing kapha disorders and encourages pitta.

Ervaruka- phut cucumber (Cucumis utilissimus Roxb.) and trapusha- common cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) are cold potency, sweet, heavy and slowly digested. Common cucumbers are tasty, dry, and effective diuretics. The phut cucumber, when completely mature, relieves pain, thirst, heat, and tiredness. Alabu, also known as the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.), is a dry, laxative, heavy, and cold potent.

Phut cucumber and chirbhata- Sweet melon (Cucumis momordica duth and full) are exactly to alabu- bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) however they are healthier when eaten in the loose motions. Ripe white gourd, or kushmanda (Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cogn.), is light, sour-sweet, and somewhat alkaline. It also pacifies tridosha and lessens urine and faeces. The keluta's attributes, etc.:-

The following plants are considered to stimulate bodily discharges: nadi-mashaka, kadamba (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq), keluta, and ainduka, or common mountain ebony. They are heavy, non-slim, and have a cool potency. An excellent astringent for curing raktapitta is the blue water lily, or utpalani (Nymphaea caerulea auct. W. Afr.).

Likewise, the pulmonary lesion known as urakshata can be effectively treated using the sprouts of the talapralamba/palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer Linn.). Talashasya (Palmyra palm kernel) and dates (Kharjura, Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.) are useful in treating wasting and raktapitta. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) fruits and bulbs, lotus filaments, taruta (Dioscorea belophylla voight), blue star water-lily/kaunchadana (Nymphaea stellata Willd.), Indian water chest-nut/shringataka (Trapa natans Linn.Var. bispinosa Roxb.Makino), fox nut/ankolodya (Euryale ferox Salisb) and club-rush/kasheruka (Scirpus grossus Linn.f.) are cold potent, heavy and digests slowly. Night flower lotus/kumuda rhizomes (Nymphaea stellata Willd.) and utpala (Blue water lily) along with fruits and flowers are considered to be astringent, sweet and cold potent. These usually excite vata and kapha.

It is stated that the seeds of the sacred lotus, also known as paushakarabija or Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., are sweet (Both in taste and after digestion), slightly astringent, and take a while to break down in the intestines. They have also been shown to be useful in healing raktapitta.

Munjatakah, also known as salep, Orchis latifolia Linn., is considered to be an aphrodisiac, sweet, unctuous, heavy, nourishing, cold potent, and strengthening. It also helps balance pitta and vata dosha.

The vidarikanda's bulb, also known as Indian kudju or Pueraria tuberosa (Wild), is powerful, sweet, diuretic, and cold potent; it is also advised for rejuvenation. It is aphrodisiac, nourishing, voice-tonic, and vitalizing.

Amlikakanda (Vitis pentaphylla Thunb.) is considered good for piles and assimilation problems. It is also light and cool, good for vata and cough, an astringent, and suggested for persistent alcoholism.

Sarshapashaka, or mustard leaf curry (Brassica campestris Linn. Var. Sarson Prain), reduces the need to urinate and defecate and aggravates all three doshas. Rosella has similar characteristics as well as being acidic and dry. The characteristics of pindaluka, or common yam (Dioscorea species), are also similar. But since it's a kanda (Bulb), it tastes better.

It is forbidden to consume sarpa mushrooms. The other edible mushroom types are heavy and sweet, have a cold potency, and induce rhinitis. The fourth part of vegetables, which includes leaves, fruits and bulbs, has come to a close.

Class Of Fruits

The fruit section now starts. Vitis vinifera Linn., also known as the grape or mridvika, is rapidly successful in alleviating burning fever, hoarseness of voice, pectoral lesions, raktapitta, thirst, mis-peristalsis, dyspnea, vata and pitta wasting diseases, bitter taste in the mouth, chronic alcoholism, and cough. It's cold in potency, sweet, unctuous, nourishing and aphrodisiac.

Dates, also known as khajura (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.), are aphrodisiacs, heavy, and potent in a cold, sweet form. It helps with burning fever, trauma, wasting, and pitta and vata diseases.

Ficus carica Linn., or common fig, is a nutritious, heavy, slow-digesting fruit with a cold potency. In cases of pitta and vata diseases, madhuka/mohwah (Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel.) and parushaka/sweet falsah (Grewia asiatica Linn.) is advised.

The Indian hog plum, or Spondias pinnata Linn. P, is a cold-potent, sweet, aphrodisiac, strengthening, heavy, nourishing, and slightly unctuous fruit, which increases kapha. It also has a prolonged digesting time. Ripe fruits of narikela phala/coconut (Cocus nucifera Linn.) and talashasyani/palmyra (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) are sweet, nourishing, strengthening, cold-potent, and unctuous.

The bhavyam/dillenia fruit (Dillenia indica Linn.), has a taste that is sweet, acidic, astringent, cold potency, slow in digestion, and heavy. It is mouth-cleansing, astringent, and raises kapha and pitta.

Kapha and pitta are stimulated or aggravated by sour falsah, peach, grape, little jujube, small jack and wild jujube.

An aruka/peach (Prunus persica Batsch.) that is fully mature is not extremely hot. An aruka/peach (Prunus persica Batsch.) that is fully mature is not extremely hot. It is sweetish, palatable, quickly digested, nourishing, heavy, and not very unhealthy.

The two types of paravata fruits (Garcinia cowa Roxb.) have different potencies: one is sour and hot, while the other is sweet and cool. It is heavy and to be useful in both inducing agni and alleviating anorexia.

It is said that the fruit of showy dillenia and kashmaryaphalam (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)/ white teak (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) differs somewhat in quality. Similar to falsah, the quality of sour mulberry, or amlatuda (Morus alba Linn.), varies slightly.

The sweet and astringent flavour of the pear fruit, or tankam (Pyrus communis Linn.), enhances the heavy and cold potency of vata. The raw kapittham or wood-apple (Feronia limonia (Linn.) Swingle is an astringent, raises vata, and negatively affects voice, but it also neutralizes poison.

The mature wood-apple fruit; is heavy, astringent, relishing, sour, sweet, and aromatic. It also works well to alleviate conflict and also an antidote for poison. Ripe bael fruit, also known as bilvam (Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb.), causes bad flatulence, is tough to digest, and aggravates all doshas. The young bael fruit is a hot, unctuous, sharp digestive stimulant that balances vata and kapha.

While unripe mangoes (Mangifera indica Linn.) enhance pitta and immature mangoes produce raktapitta, completely ripe mangoes reduce vata dosha and increase semen, flesh, and strength.

The fruit of the jambul (Syzygium cuminii Linn. Skeel) is typically cold in potency, slow to digest, heavy, and has a sweet and astringent flavour. It is an astringent, particularly raises vata and effectively treats pitta and kapha. The little jujube, Ziziphus maruitiana Lam., is a vata and pitta-balancing, unctuous, laxative that tastes sweet. A dried tiny jujube (Ziziphus Sp.), is not prohibited in pitta and is useful in treating vata and kapha.

The fruit of the Badara species known as sinchitika has an astringent, sweet flavour, a cold potency, and an astringent effect. The caper berry (Capparis decidua Edgew.), todan (Grewia species), dhanvana/dhaman fruits (Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl.), bimbi phala/scarlet-fruited gourd (Coccinia indica W & A) and ginkgo fruit (Grewia hirsuta Vahl.) are cold-potent, sweet, and have a slightly astringent flavour. They are also useful in treating kapha and pitta. The fruits of the fully ripe Indian jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia Linn.f.), Indian ape flower tree (Mimusops hexandra Roxb.) and banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) are delicious, unctuous, a little astringent, heavy and cool in potency. The lavali phala/ lavanga-lata (Luvunga scandens (Roxb.)) fruit, being fragrant, limpid and astringent, savoury, an appetizer, increases vata and cordial. Shatahvakam/Indian dill (Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Flem), Nipam/Kadamba (Mitragyna parviflora (Roxb.) Korth), trinashunyam/screw pine ((Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.f.), Peelu/tooth brush tree (Salvadora persica Linn.), pracinamalaka/puneala plum (Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch) and vikankatam/governor's plum (Flacourtia ramontchi L. Herit) are discordant dispellers and work well to alleviate the consequences of poisoning. The fruit of ingudam/zachum oil plant (Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) Delile) is unctuous, hot, has a bitter-sweet flavour, and effectively balances the vata and kapha dosha.

The tindukam/riber ebony fruit (Diospyros embryopteris Pers.)

The riber ebony fruit/tindukam (Diospyros embryopteris Pers.) is light, sweet, and astringent and balances the pitta and kapha diseases.

The amalaka/emblic myrobalan (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.)is considered as having every flavour without the salt.

The bibhitaki/belleric myrobalan (Terminalia bellirica Roxb.)is astringent, dry, acidic and sweet and is beneficial in treating pitta and kapha as well as bodily fluid, fat, blood and flesh, issues.

The dadima/pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) is useful in treating pitta and vata problems, excessive mucus production, and voice hoarseness. It is sour, sweet and astringent in taste, unctuous, an appetizer, cordial and hot and it does not conflict with Pitta or Kapha. The sweet pomegranate is good for healing pitta, whereas the dry, acidic variety aggravates both vata and pitta. Thus, let's start by discussing the characteristics of pomegranates.

The vrikshamla/kokum-butter fruit (Garcinia indica Choisy) is dry and hot and an astringent is beneficial for kapha and vata disorders. The ripe amlika/tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) fruit is a little varying in quality. The amlavetasa (Hippophae rhamnoides sub sp. salicifolia) has the same properties as well as being a laxative.

The matulunga or citron flower's filament (Citrus medica Linn.) is advised in constipation, anorexia, intestinal colic, weak digestive fire, hiccups, chronic alcoholism, cough, dyspnea, stool disorders, vomiting as well as in all vata and kapha-related ailments. The citron's filament is light, but the other components are heavy.

Karchuh- The long, zedoary/karchuh (Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.) fruit is useful for treating kapha and vata, and it is pleasant and appetising when eaten without the outer layer of rind. It also helps with piles, dyspnea, and hiccups. Narangi- Citrus reticulata Blanco, also known as the common orange fruit or nagarangaphala, is a sweet, somewhat sour, cordial, appetiser that is heavy to digest and effective in alleviating vata.

Almond (Prunus amygdalus), Abhisuka (Pistacia vera), Walnut (Juglans regia), Edible Pine/Mukulaka (Baliospermum montanum), Pine/Nikochaka (Pine gerardiana), Apricot/Urumana (Prunus armeniaca) are hot, potent, unctuous, sweet, strong, nourishing, aphrodisiac, and aggravating to pitta and kapha. They are also heavy to digest. Except for being hot, Buchanan's mango/priyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng) should be compared to the above in terms of activity.

Lisoda- Lisoda (Cordia dichotoma) is sweet, cold potency and is heavy to digest.

Ankotapahala- In addition to being heavy and delayed in the intestines, alangy / ankotaphala (Alangium salviifolium (Linn. F.) Wang.) raises kapha and is useful in treating excessive heat of the body.

Shami- Shami (Prosopis spicigera) is heavy, hot, sweet, dry and Depilatory of hair.

Karanja- Karanja (Pongamia pinnata pierre) passes through the intestines slowly and doesn't interfere with the vata or kapha energies.

Amrataka (Spondias pinnata), Lemon (Citrus limon), Karamardaka (Carissa spinarum) and common orange (Citrus sinensis) are sour and cause changes in blood and bile.

Eggplant/Brinjal (Solanum melongena) is pungent and bitter, serves as an appetizer, and effectively treats vata. Parpatiphala (Gardenia latifolia) aggravates the Vata doshas and effectively treats Kapha and Pitta.

Akshiki - Akshiki fruit (Morinda tinctoria) is sour, elevates vata, and effectively treats pitta and kapha. The fruit of Fig (Ficus religiosa) Udumbaraphala (Ficus glomerata), Plaksha (Ficus lacor) and Nyagrodhaphal (Ficus benghalensis) are astringent, sweet and sour in flavour, promote vata and heavy elimination, sweet and sour after digestion, and excellent in treating pitta and kapha.

Bhallataka - Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium) the kernel of this fruit is like a fire which causes blisters and the pulp of Bhallataka is sweet and cold in potency. This is the fifth section about fruits described here.

Harit Varga (Raw Vegetables)

The section on greens now starts

Adraka- Adraka (Zingiber officinale) is a great appetiser, which improves digestive strength and is an aphrodisiac. The juice of Adraka is useful in the case of obstruction caused by Vata and Kapha.

Jambira Nimbu- Jambira lemon (Citrus lemon) is helpful in the digestion of food, is a great appetizer, mouth cleanser, acute fragrant, digestive stimulant and treats Kapha and Vata doshas.

Radish- Radish (Raphanus sativus) When immature, these doshas are agitated, but when they grow up, they are soothed. When cooked with luscious ingredients, it reduces vata. Moreover, it balances vata and kapha when dried.

Tulsi (Suras)- Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) is useful in treating pleural effusion, kapha and vata, hiccups, cough, poisoning, dyspnea, and fetor removal. But Pitta is aggravated by it.

Yavani (Trachyspemum ammi), Arjaka (Ocimum grastissimum), Shigru (Moringa oleifera), Shaleya (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and Mustaka (Brassica nigra) is considered as a good cardiac tonic which is palatable and provokes Pitta.

Gandira (Coleus barbatus), Jala Pippali (Lippia nodiflora), Tumbaru (Zanthoxylum armatum) and Sringaverika (Coriandrum stivum) are sharp, Piercing hot, pungent in taste and is unctuous. Alleviates Kapha and Vata doshas.

Ginger grass (Hyptis suaveolens) is hot, dry, pungent, anaphrodisiac, and a good mouthwash.

Kharahava/Celery seeds- Kharahava (Carum roxburghianum) is effective in Kapha and Vata doshas and thus helpful in various urinary disorders.

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Thyme (Thymus serpyllum), Sumukha (Ocimum sp.) are appetisers, pleasant, mildly aromatic, and worsen morbid dosha.

Grinjanaka- Grinjanaka (Allium ampeloprasum) is an acute, astringent, and helpful herb for piles, vata, and kapha diseases. Those who do not have pitta discordance should utilize this in their diet and throughout sudation therapy.

Palandu- Palandu (Allium cepa) encourages kapha and works well to treat vata but not pitta. It is a powerful aphrodisiac, weighty, and appetising adjuvant for meals.

Garlic/Lashuna- Garlic (Allium sativum) is beneficial in treating gulma, vata problems, worms, and dermatoses, including leprosy. It is pungent, hot, aphrodisiac, heavy and dense.

This ends the sixth section on Greens which can be used in the form of Salad.

Class Of Wines And Alcoholic Preparation (Madya Varga)

Qualities Of Wine

In general nature wines are-

  • Amla - Sour
  • Ushna - Hot in potency and is amla (sour) vipaki.

Sura Wine- Sura wine is useful in treating vata and is advised in cases of weakness, suppression of urine, absorption difficulties, piles, and deficiencies of milk and blood.

Madira Wine- The madira wine is good for vata and helps with hiccups, dyspnea, coryza, cough, scybalous faeces, anorexia, vomiting, and constipation. Jagala Wine (the bottom portion of the wine vessel)- The benefits of jagala wine include relief from piles, kapha, vata, dysentery, and abdominal distension. It has an astringent, dry, hot potency, is good for curing oedema, and helps with digestion.

Arishta (medicated wine)- When problems arising from kapha are treated with arishta, or medicated wine, the effects are shown in consumption, piles, assimilation disorders, anaemias, anorexia, fever, and other conditions. It works well as an appetizer.

Sugar Wine- Sugar wine has a slight stimulating effect and is drinkable. In addition to being fragrant and useful in treating uncomfortable urinary diseases, it also improves complexion, aids in digestion, and strengthens the heart.

Pakvarasa shidu- This Wine is a good appetizer, which helps improve the complexion, oedema and pile, is good medicine for treating imbalance kapha disorders and the various disorders which are due to unctuous articles.

Apakvarasa Sidhu- Apakvarsa Wine is a great way to start a meal, helps constipation, and enhances the voice and complexion. In addition, it is a lekhana (medicine for weight loss) that helps with piles, oedema and stomach ailments.

Gud- Gud (jaggery)- In addition to being a delicious and hydrating beverage, Gud wine makes a great starter. Its antibacterial qualities make it useful in the treatment of wounds.

Baheda Madya- This wine is effective in anemia and in wounds and is a good appetizer.

Surasava- The surasava wine is tasty, effective in healing vata, and extremely strong (causing severe drunkenness).

Madhvasava Wine- Madhvasava wine is a harsh and exhausting herb.

Maireya Wine- This is sweet and heavy.

Dhataksyasava (Woodfordia fruticosa) This wine is dry, Mild, good for the heart and is an effective appetizer.

Grape and Sugar Wine is similar to Madhvasava but is not as hot as Madhvasava.

Honey Wine- The honey wine is a refreshing, tasty, and energising beverage. It is a good tonic for constipation and kapha, and it does not agitate the pitta. But it somewhat raises vata.

Barley Wine (Surmunda Wine)- Consumed unfiltered or undistilled, suramanda wine derived from barley is hot, dry, and raises vata and pitta. It also makes the wine heavy and slows down digestion.

Madhulika- Madhulika Wine is increasing the Kapha doshas.

Sauviraka and Tushodaka Wine- Wines like sauviraka and tushodaka work wonders as laxatives and appetisers. Additionally, these are quite helpful in the treatment of piles, absorption difficulties, anaemia, worms and cardiac illnesses.

Sour Wine- When applied topically, the sour-congee wine effectively treats fever and burning sensations. As a laxative and digestive stimulant, it works wonders for curing vata, kapha, and constipation when taken as a remedy.

Fresh Wine- In general, fresh wine is heavy and aggravates the dosha.

Old Wine- Old wine is a digestive stimulant and clears the body's channels.

Properties of consuming Wine- Wine is stimulating, enjoyable and uplifting, and it helps with fear, sadness, and exhaustion. It provides virility, plumpness, vigour, mental elevation, courage, and satisfaction. When consumed properly by righteous persons, it functions similarly to nectar.

Consequently, the seventh part on wines has been explained.

Classes Of Water

The section on waterways now starts. Every type of water falls from the sky according to Indra's decree. Time and place affect it while it is falling and after it has fallen.

Properties of Water

It is affected throughout its fall from the sky by the sun, wind, and moon's yearly movements. The characteristics of the earth it falls upon, such as its temperature, viscosity, dryness, or other properties, influence it as it hits the surface.

Qualities of Rainwater

Rainwater is cold, clear, healthy, pure, and easy to digest. These six characteristics apply to rainwater.

Various changes in Water on the properties of the Surface which is in contact with

Effect of Season on Rainwater- When water hits the soil, it changes in certain ways. It takes on an astringent flavour when it falls on white earth, a bitter flavour when it falls on yellowish-white earth, an alkaline flavour when it falls on tawny earth, and a salty flavour when it falls on saline earth. When water falls over black ground, it turns sweet and becomes fragrant when it flows from the mountains. These are the six characteristics that water that has come into contact with the earth has acquired. In their pure form, snow, hail, and celestial water taste distinctly different.

  • Aindra Jal (ऐन्द्र जल) - Rainwater was referred to by sages and wise people as celestial water that Indra, the Vedic King of all Gods, rained down from the heavens. This is the purest type of water and is perfect for drinking.
  • Uttam Jal (उत्तम जल) - Excellent water is any that is mildly sweet and astringent, delicate, transparent, and light—neither unctuous nor soft.
  • Varsha Jal (वर्षा जल) - When fresh, rainwater that falls in India during the monsoon (or rainy) season is viscous, thick, and delicious.
  • Sharad Ritu Jal (शरद ऋतु का जल) - The majority of fall rainwater is thin, light, and non-viscid. It is advised to utilise rainwater as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in electuaries, which are lickable mixtures made with honey or another sweet ingredient, and drinks for people who are sensitive to or accustomed to particularly decadent foods.
  • Hemant Ritu Jal (हेमन्त ऋतु का जल) - This late-autumn water is weighty, seductive, and beneficial to strength.
  • Shisher Ritu Jal (शिशिर ऋतु का जल)- Winter water balances vata and kapha and is slightly lighter.
  • Vasant Ritu Jal (वसन्त ऋतु का जल) - It is best to think of spring water as an astringent because it is sweet and dry.
  • Grisham Ritu Jal (ग्रीष्म ऋतु का जल) - Water in the summertime is not oily (anabhishyandi). As a result, wise people have investigated and documented the characteristics of water according to every season.
  • असमय का जल - Dosha imbalance is brought on by unseasonal rainfall. There's no question about it.
  • शारद जल प्रयोज्य - Autumnal waters should be collected and used primarily by kings, members of the nobility or privileged upbringing, and individuals with sensitive constitutions.
  • Himandi Jal (हिमनदीजल) - The water of rivers that rise in the Himalayas, whose course is disturbed, disrupted and blocked by stones, and whose banks are abode to Gods and Rishis, is revered as sacred and healthful.
  • मलय प्रभव नदीजल - The clear, nectar-like water of the rivers that flow from the Malayan mountains carries sand and stones along its path.
  • पश्चिमभिमुख - पूर्वसमुद्रगामी नदीजल - While rivers that flow slowly towards the eastern oceans are typically thought to have heavy water, those that flow westward are thought to have wholesome, clear water.
  • पारियात्र-विन्ध्य-सह्य पर्वतों से निकलने वाली नदियों के जल - Elephantiasis, dermatosis, and disorders of the head and heart are brought on by the waters of rivers that emerge from the Vindhya, Pariyatra, or Sahya mountains.
  • बरसाती नदी जल - The rivers that run during the rainy season are contaminated by rodents, earthworms, snakes, and human waste, which upsets all three doshas.
  • तालाब एव कुआ अदि का जल - Wetland, mountainous, and dry regions should be used to categorise the characteristics of the waters in tanks, wells, ponds, springs, lakes, and cascades.
  • अहितकर जल - It is not suitable to drink the slimy, insect-infested, putrefied by leaves, moss, and slush, discoloured, tasteless, dense, and foul-smelling water.
  • समुन्द्र जल - Sea Water tastes salty, smells like raw flesh, and aggravates the three doshas.

That brings us to the conclusion of the eighth section, which deals with water.

Class Of Milk And Its Various Varieties


The section on cow's milk and its byproducts now starts. The 10 characteristics of cow's milk are as follows: it is sweet, cool, soft, unctuous, glossy, dense, viscid, heavy, sluggish, and transparent. Milk encourages vital essence since it has these characteristics, which are also shared by the essential essence (ojas). One of the most powerful health revitalizers and vitalizers is milk, so the saying goes.

  • Buffalo Milk (भैंस का दूध) - In addition to being more unctuous and potent than cow's milk, buffalo milk helps with digestion and metabolism, alleviates sleeplessness, and reduces excess agni.
  • Camel Milk (उटनी का दूध) - Camel's milk is hot, light, salty, and slightly dry. It is advised in cases of constipation, oedema, parasite infections, abdominal ailments, and piles.
  • Ekashapha Ksheera (एक खुर वाले पशुओं का दूध) - Horses, mares, and other uncloven foot animals produce milk that is light, hot, slightly sour and salty, strengthening, and stabilising. It is also useful in treating vata-related ailments of the extremities.
  • Goat's Milk (बकरी का दूध) - Goat's milk has astringent, sweet, cool potency, light texture, and is useful in treating fever, diarrhoea, wasting disease, and raktapitta (bleeding disorders).
  • Sheep's Milk (भेड़ का दूध) - Sheep's milk is heated, raises kapha and pitta and induces hiccups and dyspnea.
  • Elephant Milk (हथनी का दूध) - Elephant milk is heavy and strong, and a great way to keep the body stabilized.
  • Human's Milk (नारी का दूध) - Human milk boosts suppleness and is nutritious, nourishing, and vitalizing. It can also be used as a nasal treatment for bleeding illnesses, such as raktapitta, and provides relief from ocular pain.

Qualities Of Curd

Curd is both an aphrodisiac and appetiser. It is hot in potency, sour on digestion, enhances unctuousness and strength, effectively treats vata diseases, and is nourishing and auspicious. For rhinitis, diarrhoea, colds, irregular fevers, anorexia, dysuria, and emaciation, it is advised.

Curd is usually restricted in the autumn, summer and spring season. It is also unwholesome in cases of kapha diseases and raktapitta (bleeding disorders). All three doshas are aggravated by immature or partially formed curd, although vata is effectively treated by mature curd. The milk fat is thought to be useful in curing vata and kapha as well as clearing the channels, while the cream of curds is seminiferous.

Benefits Of Buttermilk (मठा)


In situations of oedema, piles, assimilation disorders, urinary suppression, gastrointestinal ailments, anorexia and complications related to oleation therapy, anaemia, and gara poisoning, butter milk should be given.

Benefits Of Butter (ताजे माखन का गुण)


Anorexia, piles, trauma, and assimilation issues can all be effectively treated with freshly prepared butter, which is also regarded as an appetiser and astringent.

Benefits Of Ghrit (घृत के गुण)

Ghee improves agni (digestion and metabolism), shukra (semen), ojas (vital essence), fat, kapha, memory, and intelligence. It is thought to be useful in the treatment of fever, insanity, consumption, pitta, and vata disorders as well as toxic situations. It is regarded as the most delicious food, having a cold potency, being "sweet" both in taste and after digestion, and having a thousand-fold increase in potency and efficaciousness when produced using the correct pharmaceutical methods. Ghee that has been preserved works wonders for ailments including intoxication, epilepsy, fainting, consumption, insanity, poisonous disorders, fever, and head, ear, and vaginal pain. The milk of goats, sheep, and buffaloes is used to make ghee, which is thought to possess the characteristics of the milk of the corresponding animals.

Various Other Milk Products


Both the early and late colostrums and the several varieties of cream-cheese (kilatha) are good for persons with high agni or sleeplessness. These are filling, hearty, aphrodisiacs, and work well to relieve vata.

The ninth section on cow's milk and its products has been explained as a result.

Class Of Sugarcane And Its Products


The juices and goods made from sugarcane are now described. Ideally, sugarcane juice should be chewed immediately from the cane. Juice that has been machine-pressed lacks character and may irritate. Sugarcane juice has laxative, unctuous, nourishing, sweet, and cool properties. It also raises kapha. When it comes to coolness, the white kind of sugarcane (paundraka) is thought to be superior to the vamshaka variety.

Qualities Of Sharkara (चीनी के गुण)

Gur, or sugar cane juice, has sexual properties, is mildly sensual, and helps those with pectoral lesions and emaciation. Yasasharkara sugar, made from camel thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv.), has astringent, sweet, cool potency, with a hint of bitterness.

The honey sugar is depletive, dry, and works well to treat diarrhoea and vomiting. All sugars help relieve burning sensation, raktapitta, and thirst.

Types Of Honey (मधु के भेद)

There are four types of honey: large-bee honey, wasp honey, bug honey and bee honey. The greatest kind of honey is bee honey, while wasp honey is very difficult to digest.

Wasp honey is reported to be white, insect honey is tawny, and bee honey is believed to be the colour of oil. Large bee honey is supposed to be the colour of ghee.

Qualities Of Honey (मधु के सामान्य गुण)

In addition to being viscid, dry, astringent, and sweet, honey also aggravates vata and is cold in potency, heavy to digest, and beneficial in curing raktapitta and kapha illnesses.

Hot/Warm Honey (उष्ण मधु मृत्युकारक)

Warm or hot honey can be lethal. Because of its harmful effects throughout the accumulation phase, it can be fatal if given in settings that are heightened by excessive heat. In moderation, it is also healthful despite having a potency that is hot, astringent, heavy and dry.

Honey-induced ama condition is the most challenging disease to treat. Even more swiftly than poison, the harshness of the patient's therapy can be fatal. It is recommended to treat chyme diseases (ama) with medications with high potency. Hot items, however, should not be consumed when ama problem is brought on by honey. As a result, honey-induced ama-disorder is a dangerous illness that can be fatal just like poisoning. Honey is the greatest vehicle (or medium) for delivering medication because it is made up of many different components.

This closes the tenth section, which focuses mostly on items made from sugar cane.

Cooked Food Preparation (Kritanna Varga)

The section on cooked foods now starts.

  • Thin Gruel (पेया)- Hunger, thirst, fatigue, weakness, gastrointestinal problems, and fever are all eliminated by thin gruel. It stimulates agni, produces sweat, and controls the flow of faeces and flatus.
  • Thick Gruel (विलेपी)- Vilepi, or thick gruel, is light, astringent, and nutritious.
  • Gruel Water (मण्ड)- Gruel-water (manda) controls vata's downward trajectory and ignites agni. It induces sweating and softens the channels. Its ability to arouse agni and lightness, particularly in those undergoing purification processes, reduction therapies, or developing thirst after any unctuous dose has been digested, is what keeps life going.
  • लाजपेया- The thin gruel of roasted paddy relieves fatigue, especially in those who are sick and have weak voices.
  • लाजमण्ड- The toasted corn flour gruel water relieves thirst and diarrhoea, keeps tissue elements in their natural state, is widely regarded as healthy and even auspicious, promotes agni and works well to treat burning sensations and fainting. Those with weak or irregular agni, children, the elderly, ladies and those in fragile health should all be given the gruel water of fried maize that has been well-seasoned.
  • सुसंकृत लाजमण्ड- Gruel water made from roasted corn flour soothes hunger and thirst, is nourishing and eliminates any remaining morbidity in those who have undergone purification treatments when combined with dried ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and long pepper (Piper longum Linn.). It can also be boiled with maize and sour pomegranates.
  • लाजसतू- The roasted maize flour has a light texture, a cold potency, a sweet flavour, and an astringent quality.
  • ओदन (भात)- Light food is made from rice that has been thoroughly cleaned, drained, softened by steam and warmed.
  • भुजिया चावल का भात- Fried rice is recommended in kapha illnesses and toxic situations.
  • अधूरा पका भात- Uncleanized cooked rice that hasn't had the boiling water pushed out of it, isn't properly softened and when consumed cold is difficult to digest.
  • मांस आदि के साथ पकया भात- Rice prepared with flesh, vegetables, fat oil, ghee, marrow or fruit is strengthening, nourishing, cordial, and heavy. Likewise, rice is cooked together with black gram, tila, milk and green gram.
  • कुल्माष (घुँघनी)- Kulmasha, a type of pea, causes loose stools, is dry, heavy to digest, and stimulates vata.
  • उबले भक्ष्य- In the case of steamed dishes produced with wheat, barley, and pulses, the doctor should assess the degree of heaviness and lightness based on the ingredients.

अकृत यूष आदि की गुरुता-

Both well-seasoned and poorly-seasoned soups, thin and thick meat fluids, and sour and non-sour broths should be considered heavier (and therefore more difficult to digest) than the others in the specified order.

  • SATTU(सत्तू) - Roasted flour is dry, increases faecal matter, aggravates vata, and controls peristalsis. It instantly nourishes and fortifies the individual upon consumption. अगहनी चावल का सत्तू - Roasted shali rice flour has astringent, cold-potent, sweet, and light properties. It is useful in treating fever, vomiting, raktapitta, and thirst.
  • जौ का पुआ, जौ का भात और जौ की दलिया (बार्ली) - Pancake of barley, or apupa, is good for cough, urological conditions, throat spasms, and coryza. However, fried barley can lead to udavarta, an illness caused by vitiation of vata from suppressing impulses.
  • धानासंज्ञक भक्ष्य - Dhana, an infusion made from barley, is often regarded as repulsive. Its dryness makes it nutritious, but its propensity to postpone digestion in the intestines makes it challenging to digest.
  • गुरु एव पौष्टिक पदार्थ - Pupa, pupalika (a sort of seet cake fried in ghee or oil), shashkuli, madhukrodas with pindakas, and other flour preparations are incredibly heavy.
  • फल- मांस-चर्बी-शाक-पलल (तिलकुट) और मधु के साथ बनाये गए भक्ष्य पदार्थ - Cooked foods that contain fruits, meat, fat, vegetables, tilapia paste, and honey are nourishing, heavy to digest, and fortifying. They are also regarded as aphrodisiacs.
  • वेशवार - The seasoning known as veshavara is thick, rich, and gives meat more body and plumpness. Milk and sugarcane juices make thick, nutritious, and aphrodisiac apupa mixtures.
  • दूध और गन्ने के रास से बना पुआ - Preparation combined with sugar, honey, gud, tila, or milk is thought to be highly heavy, strong, and aphrodisiac.
  • गेहूँ से बने पदार्थ - Preparation combined with sugar, honey, gud, tila, or milk is thought to be highly heavy, strong, and aphrodisiac.
  • धाना-पर्पट-पुआ आदि - When seasoned, wheat flour products like dhana, parpata, apupa (a type of fine bread or flour cake), etc., become light. Having this knowledge, one ought to recommend them.
  • पृथक आदि - Rolling rice makes it heavier. It needs to be fried and then consumed in moderation. While unfried barley results in loose stools, fried barley digests more slowly.
  • सूप्यात्र भक्ष्य - Preparations of pulses aggravate vata, and are dry and cold in potency. They must be taken in small quantities with pungent, unctuous and saltish substances.
  • मृदुपाक भक्ष्य - Thick, hard preparations that must be cooked over a low heat for an extended period of time are weighty, digest slowly, and give the food plumpness and strength.
  • भक्ष्य पदार्थो के गुरु-लघु का ज्ञान - The combination of the above-mentioned ingredients, the type of preparation, and the quantity of each substance must all be taken into consideration when determining how heavy or light a preparation should be.
  • विमर्दक - Vimardaka (Cassia tora) is a thick, friendly, aphrodisiac beverage that is best enjoyed by those with strong bodies. It is made using ripe, unripe, softened, and roasted ingredients.
  • रसाला (श्रीखंड) - Rasala, a dish of curds or puddings blended with sugar and spices, is aphrodisiac, nourishing, luscious, fortifying, and appetizer-style.
  • JAGGERY AND CURD (गुड़ एंड दही) - When consumed with guda, curds improve lusciousness and are nourishing, amiable, and beneficial in healing vata.
  • PANAK (पानक) - The drink which is prepared from Munnaka (raisin), Khajur (dates), Ber (Jujube) is heavy and causes obstruction. In the same case, Falsa (Sherbet berry), Madhu (Honey) and Chini (Sweet) prepared Drinks possess these qualities. Knowing the specific composition of each ingredient, the amount used, and how the potent and acidic, Pungent flavours blend together will help you judge these drinks' characteristics and effects.
  • रागषाडव - The preparations which are known as Raag and Shadav are bitter, sour, sweet and salty. They are Digestive stimulant, Good appetizer, good for the heart and are light to digest.
  • आम और अमला की चटनी - The Linctuses prepared from Mango and Amla are sweet, heavy and Unctuous. Thus it is helpful in nourishing, Appetizing and provides strength. The properties and actions depend upon various types of Linctuses are described on the types, method of preparation and the proportions in which the further ingredients are added.
  • सिरका के गुण - This preparation increases the Rakta (blood), Pitta, Kapha doshas and regulates the Vata doshas.
  • आसुत - The rhizomes, root and fruit have the same properties of Sirka when fermented.
  • शिण्डाकी - This is made by marinating the Black cumin seeds, Mustard Seeds and Radish in Sirka (सिरका).
  • कालाम्ल - After marinating Ginger, radish, Green chilies in Sirka (सिरका) for some time, it gets more sour with time. This is a good appetiser and is light to digest.

Classes Of Food Articles

Qualities Of Oil

The oil from Til (Sesamum indicum Linn.) has an astringent taste and becomes hot, diffusive, and is slightly sweet. It aggravates pitta and leads to constipation and oliguria. It doesn't make kapha stronger. It is the best vata pacifier; it strengthens, improves skin, and raises agni and intelligence. Til oil is regarded as a very efficient drug delivery system. The vedic texts also highlight the oil's therapeutic qualities. Legendary daitya (devil) rulers used it to fight the Devas (Gods) and overcome aging, illness, and exhaustion. They also gained immense strength from the oil.

  • Castor Oil (एरण्ड तैल) - This preparation of Oil is sweet, heavy, and increases Kapha doshas. Helpful in Gulma, Raktapitta, Heart problems and in chronic fever.
  • Mustard Oil (सरसों तैल) - Brassica campestris Linn. Var. Sarson Prain, often known as white rapeseed, is hot, pungent, and vitiates pitta and blood while depleting semen and kapha. Additionally, it works wonders for urticaria, pruritus, and vata diseases.
  • Priyala Oil (चिरोंजी का तैल) - The oil of Buchanan's mango, also known as Buchanania lanzan Spreng or priyala, Buchanans mango, is kapha-aggravating, heavy and sweet. As it has a mild potency, it is helpful in vata-pitta (द्वन्दज रोग) disorders.
  • Alsi Oil (अलसी का तैल) - This Oil is Sweet and Sour in taste, has Pungent vipaka (after digestion) and has Hot potency. Alsi increases Rakta and Pitta doshas and balances Vata doshas.
  • Safflower Oil (कुसुम्भ का तैल) - After digestion, the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.) oil is hot and pungent, as well as heavy. It aggravates every dosha to an excessive level. Various other Oils which are used in the food preparation, the properties, actions are similar to fruits from which the oil is extracted.

Spices And Salts

Sonth (Dry Zinger)

Zingiber officinale Rosc., the ginger plant, is hot, aphrodisiac, aids in the digestion of food, promotes the vata and kapha energies, and tastes sweet after digestion.

Green Ripe Pippal (Long Pepper)

This is sweet in taste, heavy and unctuous.

Dried Pippal (Long Pepper Fruit)

Has Pungent taste, Hot in potency, balances Vata and Kapha doshas. Has aphrodisiac property.

Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum)

The anaphrodisiac, light, appetising, depletive, and dehydrating properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) are all present in small amounts. Both vata and kapha are effectively treated with it.

Hing (Ferula Narthex)

It is helpful in balancing the Colic Pain, Is Carminative and palatable. Helpful in treating Vata Kapha disorders, Is pungent in taste and is hot in potency.

  • Saindhav Lavan (सैंधव नमक) - Considered as the best salt, rock salt serves as both an appetiser and an aphrodisiac. It is also non-irritating and enhances vision. It is mildly pleasant and useful in the rehabilitation of tri dosha imbalances.
  • Sanchal Lavan (सोंचर नमक - This Salt is Fine, Hot in potency, is light and is fragrant. Works as an appetiser, which removes the obstruction, good for heart and clears the belching.
  • Vida Lavan (विड नमक) - Because it is hot, sharp, and diffusive, vida salt improves digestion, eases colicky pain, and balances the vata's upward and downward movements. Audbhida Lavan (औद्भिद नमक) - This salt is bitter, pungent, slightly alkaline, sharp and softening.
  • Kallavan (काला नमक) - This salt has no smell and the Qualities are similar to Sonchal type of Salt.
  • Sea Salt (समुद्री नमक) - This salt is sweet in taste.
  • पांशुज नमक - This salt is slightly bitter and pungent in taste. All types of Salts are appetizing, digestive, laxative and are effective in treating the Vata doshas.


Yav Alkali (यव क्षार) - Yavakshar is effective in treating the disorders of heart, anemia, spleen disorders, cough, constipation, Grahni roga and in all types of Piles.

Qualities Of Alkali

All alkali are sharp, hot, light, dry, liquefacient, digestive, carminative, corrosive, digestive stimulant and are depletive.

कारवी (स्याहजीरा), मंगरैला, जीरा, अजवयान, धनिया और तुम्भुरु

Celery Seeds, Black Cumin, Cumin, Yavani, Coriander and Tumburu are great appetizers, stimulate proper digestion, remove the foul odour from the body and are helpful in Vata kapha disorders.

The twelfth section on the ingredients used in cooked foods comes to an end here.

पुराणंप्रायशोरूक्षंप्रायेणाभिनवंगुरु ॥३०९॥
यद्यदागच्छति क्षिप्रंतत्तल्लघुतरंस्मृतम्।

Cereals and legumes which are one year old are highly recommended. As old grains are dry in nature and new harvested are heavy to digest.

Faster-growing grains are said to be lighter than the others. The slightly roasted and decorticated pulse breaks down quickly.

निषिद्ध मांस

The flesh of the animal which is dead, emaciated, very fat, old, too young, killed by poisoning, reared in an unnatural habitat or killed by a tiger or snake should be avoided. Except for the above scenarios, flesh of animals described in this and prior chapters is wholesome, nourishing and promotes strength.

Anupana (अनुपान)

The right corrigent is the beverage that has the opposite quality to the meal consumed (agent that neutralises the undesirable-effects of a certain medication or diet). The ideal postprandial beverage is one that does not negatively impact dosha or dhatu.

अनुपान का चयन

After a meal, one should choose a drink that is healthful and suitable for consumption after carefully examining the various types of water and the eighty-four types of wines that were previously discussed.

दोषानुसार अनुपान

Drinks that are hot and smooth in vata conditions, sweet and relaxing in pitta applications burning and dry in kapha conditions, and meat juices in wasting conditions are said to be the greatest.

Milk is regarded as a healthy postprandial beverage, comparable to nectar, for people who are weary after fasting, travelling, speaking, being with ladies, or from effort, wind, and sun.

Sura wine is advised as a postprandial beverage to replenish the malnourished. It is advised to drink a mixture of honey and water after dinner to help with weight gain.

Wine is recommended as a postprandial drink for people who have weak agni and insomnia due to unconsciousness, grief, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as for individuals who are used to wine and meat.

Benefits Of Anupana (अनुपान)

The characteristics and functions of postprandial beverages are now discussed. Drinks after a meal provide the body with nutrition, enjoyment, energy, and a sense of fullness. They also aid in the breakdown and assimilation of food by allowing it to soften, liquefy, and digest more quickly.

अनपान विषयक परीक्ष्य बातें-


The following provides an explanation of an animal's food and habitat, body parts, constitution, body elements, activities, sex, size, technique of preparation, and measurement.


The features of food and beverages, the twelve categories of diet items (including the most important ones), the characteristics of postprandial drinks, and a brief explanation of the heaviness and lightness of diet items have all been covered in this chapter on diet and dietetics.

Thus, the twenty-seventh chapter, "The Regimen of food and beverages," in the Section on General Principles of the treatise edited by Agnivesha and amended by Charak, is now complete.

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