Charak Samhita - Sutra Sthana - Chapter 8 (Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya)
Acharya Charak was the author of the Charak Samhita. He wrote the Sanskrit Charak Samhita between the years 100 BCE and 200 CE. Acharya Charak is frequently referred to as "The Father of Medicine" and is credited with several important medical advances. This Samhita discusses the causes, signs, and therapies of several diseases. Charak Samhita is made up of 120 chapters, including Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, and Sharira Sthan. Additionally, Acharya Charak talked about how the texts Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, and Siddhi Sthana all emphasize the need to take medications at different times of the year in different ritu (seasons), kala (years), and Anupana (foods eaten before or after taking medications). The eighth chapter of the Charak Samhita Sutra Sthana, Indriyopakramaniya Adhyaya, will be examined in this article.
The principles relating to diet, regimens of daily and seasonal routine, and other areas of health promotion and prevention have been covered in prior chapters. The mind surpasses all of the sensory organs, which are limited to acquiring and disseminating knowledge about the world around them. The senses cannot comprehend their respective objects without the mind. The ethical and moral standards of behavior and conduct have been described in this chapter through an examination of the mind and the senses. The senses serve as tools for the soul to learn things and for the mind to express itself. The mind is in charge of controlling the senses, and the mind is then in charge of the intellect, buddhi, and finally the soul, atma. As a result, this chapter discusses indriya, sattva (mind), and atma.
Five Pentads Of Sense Organs
In the context of sensory organs, it can be claimed that there are five sense organs, five sense organ concerns, five sense organ locations, five sense perceptions and five sense objects.
Sattva And Mana's Functions As Indriya
The mind is beyond the senses. While some refer to it as chetas, others refer to it as satva. Its actions are based on the goals and successes of the Self, also known as the atma or atman. The sense organs actions are controlled by it.
The Reason For The Different Ways That The Same Mind Manifests Itself
Apparently, the mind, in person, seems to be more than one because of variations in its own objects, sense objects and its analytical activity and also due to conjunction with the qualities of satva, raja and tama, but, in fact, there is no numerousness. One does not attend to more than one at a time that is why there is no activity of all the sense organs simultaneously.
Identifying Psychological Traits
The quality which is predominantly and time and again present in the mind of a person is the basis on which sages have described the mind according to predominance.
Association Between The Mind And Sense Organs For Perception
The sense organs are capable of perceiving their objects only when they are supported by the mind.
Description Of Five Sense Organs
Five Sense Organs
Visual, olfactory, auditory, tactile and gustatory are the five sense organs.
Origin Of Senses Matters
Five matter of sense organs are-Akash (Space), Vayu (Air), Tejas (Fire), Jal (Water) and Prithvi (Earth).
Five Locations Of Sensations
Eyes, nostrils, tongue, ears and skin-these five are locations of sense organs.
Five Sense Objects
Five sense objects are - Sound (Shabad), Vision (Rupa), Touch (Sparsh), Smell (Gandha) and Taste (Rasa).
Five Sensory Perceptions
Five sense perceptions are visual perception etc. These are produced by the contact of the sense organ, mind, sense object and self. They are determinative and momentary. This is about five pentads.
Material And Soul Related Attributes
Mind, mind's objects, self and intellect are, in brief, the substances and qualities pertaining to self. This entire group is the cause of inclination towards and abstaining from inauspicious and auspicious acts respectively. The substance determines the actions also referred to as therapeutic measures.
Certain Elements And Topics Related To Sensory Organs
The five mahabhuta are the building blocks of all currently existing sense organs, which can be understood by inference. Tejas, Akasha, Prithvi, Apa, and Vayu are the dominant senses in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. Since their underlying nature (Svabhava) and unique capacity for sense perception (Vibhu) are comparable, the sense organs see their objects in accordance with the predominance of their constituent mahabhuta.
Causes Of Normal And Abnormal Sensations
In case of the sense organs along with the mind having been deranged due to negative, excessive and perverted conjunction with their sense objects, the respective sense perception gets disturbed. Again with their balanced use when all this returns to normalcy, it promotes the respective sense perception.
Mind Functions And Mental Health Preservation
Object Of Mind
The mind's primary goal is to think. The balanced, negative, excessive and perverted conjunctions are the causes of normalcy and abnormality of mind and its sense perception.
Maintenance Of Healthy Mind
The regular functioning of the sensory organs with the mind should always be maintained, and they should be shielded from any stress. This can be done by properly aligning the sense organs with their objects, carrying out tasks after carefully weighing their benefits and drawbacks with the aid of the intellect and the sense faculties, and by adopting (Preventive) measures that are in opposition to the characteristics of season, place and self. Therefore, everyone should always remember and obey all the moral laws (Given in the passage below) if they want to ensure their own wellbeing.
Code Of Good Conduct (Sadvritta)
Sadvritta For Good Health And Sensory Control
- God, Brahmins, senior citizens, preceptors, cows, Brahmins, preceptors, senior citizens, accomplished people, and teachers should all be worshipped.
- Oblation should be made in honor of the fire, and lucky herbs should be worn.
- It is recommended to take a bath twice a day and usually clean one's feet and excretory passages.
- Shaving, trimming nails, and cutting hair should all be done three times every fortnight.
- Always be happy, wear undamaged clothing, and utilize flowers and perfume. The hairstyle should be as usual in practice, and the clothing should be soft.
- Daily oiling of the head, nose, ears, and feet is advised, as well as (Healthy) smoking.
- During conversations, one should be proactive and remain cheerful.
- People in distress or dire conditions should be saved.
- Should make oblations, religious sacrifices, charitable contributions, show respect at intersections, and offer bali (Ceremonial sacrifices or religious offerings)
- Must extend hospitality to visitors and pindas (Rice balls) to ancestors
- One should use beneficial, measured, delicious, and meaningful words at the right time.
- Be virtuous and self-restrained.
- To be enthusiastic for a cause, yet not to worry about the outcome.
- One should be fearless, bashful (To avoid doing terrible things), wise, extremely eager, skilled, foreboding, pious, and have a positive outlook.
- One ought to be committed to mentors, successful people, and superior people in intelligence, clan, learning, and age.
- It is advised to wear appropriate footwear, carry a stick, wear a turban and an umbrella while walking and looking six feet in front of them at all times.
- One should behave honorably, stay away from places that include impure items, bones, dirty clothes, hairs, ash, chaff, thorns, trash, or skulls, and bathe and offer sacrifices.
- Exercise should be stopped before feeling exhausted.
- Should be compassionate toward all living things, should appease the irate and the dissatisfied, and should reassure the fearful.
- Should be peaceful, truthful, and assist the needy.
- Be tolerant of others harsh words, remover of intolerance.
- should always focus on the virtues of a calm existence and should alleviate the reason of aversion and attachment.
The Prohibited Conduct Codes
- One should not tell a lie nor should take over another's possession.
- One should not desire for other women or other’s property.
- Should not engage in sexual acts, should not be vicious even to sinner.
- It is improper to criticize others' flaws and to inquire about the secrets of others.
- Insane people, people who don't practice social ethics, people who detest the king, people who kill fetuses, sad people, and wicked people shouldn't be in your company.
- The use of faulty vehicles, sitting on rough surfaces at knee level, sleeping on hard, unprotected beds without pillows, beds with insufficient space, and uneven surfaces are all prohibited.
- It is not advisable to climb trees, navigate rocky mountaintops, or swim in current-filled water.
- You shouldn't sneeze, yawn, or laugh with your mouth open, and you shouldn't walk on a bank's shade or move around areas that are susceptible to fire risks. You also shouldn't contort your nose, grind your teeth, scratch the ground with your nails, cut the grass, hit your bones, press an earthen lamp, or engage in any other improper body movements.
- When approaching a body, one should not make an abnormally loud noise, look at light-colored, undesired, impure, or unlucky objects, or step on the shadow of a beloved person, teacher, or other religious figure.
- One shouldn't spend too much time alone or in sacred places, temples, desolate homes or woodland, and they should avoid crossing any raised platforms, gardens, crossroads, cremation grounds, or locations of execution at night.
- It is improper to be connected to ladies, friends, or servants who engage in evil behavior, to resist or enmity superior people, or to have a connection to subordinate people.
- One shouldn't be drawn to unethical pursuits, seek solace in wicked people, or engage in frightful or terrifying behavior.
- Indulging in excessive courage, sleep, bathing, eating, or drinking is not advised. While kneeling up and approaching ferocious creatures or those with noticeable horns and teeth, one shouldn't do so for an extended period of time.
- The sun, easterly winds, dews, and strong wind currents should not be exposed to individuals.
- Arguments shouldn't be started by anyone.
- Yajna (Fire worship) should not be performed in a private area, and wearing spotted clothing and keeping one's feet close to the fire are both prohibited. When feeling worn out and exhausted, one should take a nap and wash their faces before taking a bath. Should put on clean clothing after taking a bath, avoid touching the head via dirty clothing, and avoid hitting the hair tips.
- One must touch the flowers, ghee, respectable, auspicious, and gems before leaving.
- It is improper to pass the honorable and fortunate on the left and others on the right.
Etiquette And Rules For Eating
- One shouldn't consume food without wearing valuable stones in their hands, bathing, donning torn clothing, repeating mantras, offering God oblations, and making offerings to their deceased ancestors, teachers, dependants, and guests.
- A person should wash their feet, hands, and faces before eating, as well as their mouths, before applying a cleansing scent and garlands. One shouldn't consume food while facing north, stressed or depressed, with unfaithful, disorganized, hungry, and unclean companions present, using impure utensils or unsuitable time or place, in a crowded setting, without first making an offering to the fire, without sprinkles the holy water on it, without purifying it via mantras, and with disdainful disregard.
- It is not advisable to consume tainted food or meals that have been offered by opponents or enemies.
- Stale food, such as salad, meat, fruits, dry vegetables, and hard foods, should not be consumed.
- All food items on a plate should not be consumed, with the exception of the salt, curd, roasted grain flour, ghee, honey, and salt (Which should be consumed).
- Curd shouldn't be consumed at night. Roasted grain flour should not be consumed in big quantities, at night, twice daily, after meals, without combining it with sugar and ghee, or stopped with drinking water or gnashing one's teeth.
Codes Of Conduct For Natural Urges
- It is not advised to eat, sneeze, or sleep in a curved position.
- While feeling the urges of nature, one should not be working on other projects. The natural craving should be satisfied before performing other tasks.
- Sputum, urine, and feces, shouldn't be passed in the direction of the brahmins, preceptors, moon, fire, sun, winds, or water.
- It is improper to urinate while eating, in a crowded area, or on roads.
- When performing holy or auspicious deeds such as mantra recitation, sacrifice, studies, and oblation, one shouldn't let out nasal and oral excreta.
Codes Of Conduct For Women
- Women shouldn't be criticized or given excessive amounts of trust. They shouldn't be given access to confidential information or power without due consideration.
- One should not engage in sexual activity with a female who is menstruating, who has a sickness, who is unclean, unlucky, has an unattractive appearance, exhibits terrible behavior, conducts, or manners, or who lacks abilities.
- It is improper to have sex with a woman who is not friendly, who has no intense desire, who has an intense attraction for another person, or who is married to someone else.
- Except for human beings, other animal species, and body parts other than the genitalia, one should not engage in sexual activity.
- It is improper to engage in sexual activity at graveyards, execution sites, slaughterhouses, water reservoirs, holy places, public courtyards, crosswalks, gardens, or drug stores. Additionally, it is forbidden to engage in sexual activity in the shelters of teachers, brahmins and temples.
- Sexual activity shouldn't be done at dawn or dusk, on unlucky days like full moon days and pratipadas (The first day of the lunar month), etc. One should not engage in sexual activity while unclean, without prior desire and thought, without aphrodisiacs, without a proper erection, without meals or after consuming an excessive amount of food, on an uneven surface, when feeling the urge to urinate or defecate, after exerting oneself physically, during fasting, after feeling exhausted, or in a location without privacy.
Code Of Conduct For Preceptors
- It is improper to criticize or insult preceptors and honorable people.
- One should not be impure while casting spells, worshipping holy trees, or studying.
Studying And Learning Codes
- Studying should be avoided during eclipses (Lunar or solar), unseasonal lightning, fire outbreaks, earthquakes, major festivals, meteor falls, and appearances of burned-out houses. One shouldn't study on a fresh moon day, during dusk or dawn.
- Studying without preceptor instruction is not advised. It is improper to speak words in an unnatural or weak voice, without suitable accents or morphological symmetry, quickly or slowly, with excessive delay, or with a pitch that is too low or too high.
Social Behavior Codes
- It is forbidden to violate any codes of conduct and to depart from accepted social norms.
- Moving at odd hours or in the wrong places is not advised. The hours of dawn and sunset should not be used for eating, studying, having sex, or sleeping.
- One should avoid forming friendships with young people, the elderly, people who are selfish, greedy, or foolish, people who are ill, and eunuchs.
- One should not be interested in drinking alcohol, gambling, or engaging in sexual activity with prostitutes.
- Secrets should not be revealed, and no one should be insulted. One shouldn't be arrogant, incompetent, inexperienced, or envious.
- Both insulting brahmins and beating cows with sticks are prohibited. It is improper to mistreat the elderly, preceptors, members of the administrative class, or the monarch.
- Speaking too much or treating relatives, close friends, people who supported you during hard times, and people who know the secrets poorly are both unacceptable.
Codes For Maintaining A Healthy Mentality In Society
- It is not appropriate to be hurried or overly thrilled.
- A person shouldn't act in an unfriendly manner toward his companions, secrets in his family, be delighted alone, or have unfavorable conduct.
- One shouldn't depend on anyone, suspect anyone, or be overly critical all the time.
Workplace Behavior Guidelines
- It shouldn't be a habit to put things off when the time is right to act.
- Without thoroughly investigating, one should never engage in any endeavor.
- One shouldn't let their fickle mind wander or submit to their senses.
- One shouldn't overburden their brains or senses.
- Avoiding procrastination is advised.
- One should not act under the emotions of exhilaration or anger.
- Being constantly sad is not healthy.
- One shouldn't be arrogant about successes or hopeless in defeat.
- One should never forget their own mental type or constitution.
- One should be confident of the effect of a cause and as such should always initiate the cause.
- One shouldn't give up and think there is nothing more one can accomplish.
- One should not forget his insults or lose heart (Give up bravery).
Codes Of Behavior For Happy Wellbeing
One expecting blessings for him should not offer oblation to fire with barley, cow ghee, sacred grass, mustard and sesamum while unclean, one should touch water reciting the mantras 'Agnirme napagacchet' etc. After touching the feet and lips, one should touch with all the orifices in head, and location of self, head and heart.
Now, in order to summarize the chapter's material, the five pentads, four etiological elements, the rule of good conduct, and "the description of the sense organs" have all been comprehensively discussed in this chapter. A person who upholds the moral code for maintaining good health can live for 100 years without experiencing any abnormalities. Such individuals, who are commended by the noble ones, become famous throughout the world, acquire virtue and prosperity, win the goodwill of all living things, and ultimately, via the doing of good deeds, arrive at the excellent abode (virtuous realm) of good souls after death. Therefore, everyone should abide by this code of conduct.