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Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 23 ( Santarpaniya Adhyaya)

Abstract

Overeating and undereating can contribute to the development of diseases. This chapter summarizes the variables that impact nutritional status and cause the two types of diseases-santarpana (Overnutrition) and apatarpana (Undernutrition)-that are discussed. These two disease group's lifestyle and dietary management are also covered in detail. Medication is used to explain nutritional supplements, recipes for losing weight, panchakarma treatments, and other related procedures. A thorough list of herbs that are typically available and are used to treat certain ailments is also included in this chapter. So today we will discuss the Charaka Samhita Sutra sthana chapter twenty three Santarpaniya adhyaya in detail.

Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 23 ( Santarpaniya Adhyaya)

Introduction

The current chapter in the collection of chapters describing management concepts addresses two of the most frequently seen problems in society, namely apatarpana (Under-nutrition) and santarpana (Overnutrition). It comes after the brimhana and langhana treatments. The current chapter describes the illnesses caused by both over and under nutrition, along with their causes and methods of treatment, including food and medications. It is a combination of medications and nutritional dietary additives. The chapter also lists ailments brought on by undernutrition or malnourishment and how to treat them with easy dietary preparations, as well as complications brought on by sedentary lifestyles and an excessively nutritive diet. Additionally, a thorough explanation of the pharmacological effects of management-related herbs is provided. Undernutrition causes vitiation of vata and pitta dosha and a variety of degenerative pathologies, whereas overnutrition causes vitiation of meda dhatu and kapha dosha as well as other obstructive pathologies. This chapter has placed a lot of focus on this concept.

Causes Of Illnesses Brought On By Santarpana

Santarpana is caused by consuming too much food that is sweet, unctuous, slimy and difficult to digest, new wine, as well as new grains (Particularly new rice), the meat of animals who were born in or lived in marshy areas, milk of cow and its derivatives, as well as those that were sweetened with molasses or sugar, and various types of cakes. People who lead inactive lifestyles, sedentary, and sleep throughout the day are more likely to get santarpaniya vyadhis, or illnesses brought on by santarpana.

List Of Diseases Caused By Santarpana

If the consequences of santarpana do not get effectively addressed because of the aforementioned causative reasons, one develops a variety of illnesses, such as stubborn urinary ailments, including carbuncles, itching, diabetes, urticaria, anaemia (Pandu), amaja disease (Toxins), sleepiness or drowsiness, fever, appetite or anorexia related complaints, secondary diseases to ama vitiation, stubborn skin diseases, dysuria, sexual and erectile dysfunctions, laziness, obesity, body heaviness, blockage of sense organs as well as channels, several forms of edema, delusions, and other related diseases.

Treatment Of Illnesses Brought On By Santarpana

शस्तमुल्लेखनं तत्र विरेको रक्तमोक्षणम्।
व्यायामश्चोपवासश्च धूमाश्च स्वेदनानि च।। (8)

Santarpaniya vyadhis and complications associated with them should be treated with dhooma (Smoke of medicinal herbs), raktamokshana (Blood-letting), particular exercises, therapeutic fasting, virechana (Therapeutic purgation), swedana (Sudation) and ullekhana (Therapeutic emesis).

सक्षौद्रश्चाभयाप्राशः प्रायो रूक्षान्नसेवनम्।
चूर्णप्रदेहा ये चोक्ताः कण्डूकोठविनाशनाः।। (9)

It is recommended to use haritaki (Terminalia chebula)-based formulas, that include agastyaharitaki combined with honey, accustomed with ruksha (Dry) food (Without using ghee, oil, etc.), and the powders and poultices provided in the third chapter of this section's treatment of urticaria and pruritus.

त्रिफलारग्वधं पाठां सप्तपर्णं सवत्सकम्।
मुस्तं समदनं निम्बं जलेनोत्क्वथितं पिबेत्।। (10)
तेन मेहादयो यान्ति नाशमभ्यस्यतो ध्रुवम्।
मात्राकालप्रयुक्तेन सन्तर्पणसमुत्थिताः।।(11)

It is recommended to regularly consume a decoction of the triphala herbs amalaki (Emblica officinalis), bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica), and haritaki (Terminalia chebula), as well as the herbs cassia fistula (Aragwadha), Cissampelos pareira (Patha), Alstonia scholaris (Saptaparna), holarrhena antidysenterica (Vatsaka), cyperus rotundus (Musta), randia dumetorum (Madana), and azadirachta indica (Nimba). Santarpaniya vyadhi, such as madhumeha (Diabetes), and other disorders can be effectively treated by using this decoction on a regular basis, in the suitable dose, and at the appropriate time.

मुस्तमारग्वधः पाठा त्रिफला देवदारु च।
श्वदंष्ट्रा खदिरो निम्बो हरिद्रे त्वक्च वत्सकात्।। (12)
रसमेषां यथादोषं प्रातः प्रातः पिबन्नरः।
सन्तर्पणकृतैः सर्वैर्व्याधिभिः सम्प्रमुच्यते। (13)


एभिश्चोद्वर्तनोद्धर्षस्नानयोगोपयोजितैः।
त्वग्दोषाः प्रशमं यान्ति तथा स्नेहोपसंहितैः।। (14)

All santarpaniya illnesses are able to be eliminated, if the decoction (Juices) of triphala, musta, paatha, aaragvadha, nimba, shvadamshtra (Tribulus terrestris), devadaru (Cedrus deodara), haridra (Curcuma longa), khadira (Acacia catechu Wild),vatsaka bark (Holarrhena antidysenterica) and daruharidra (Berberis aristata) are taken in every morning according to dosha dominant in the disease.

All skin conditions produced by santarpaniya vyadhis are relieved when the aforementioned herbs are applied in the form of a powder for udvartana without or with massage, or in a decoction for a therapeutic bath, or in an oil form for body application.

कुष्ठं गोमेदको हिङ्गु क्रौञ्चास्थि त्र्यूषणं वचा।
वृषकैले श्वदंष्ट्रा च खराह्वा चाश्मभेदकः।। (15)
तक्रेण दधिमण्डेन बदराम्लरसेन वा।
मूत्रकृच्छ्रं प्रमेहं च पीतमेतद्व्यपोहति।। (16)

Kustha (Saussurea lappa), hingu (Ferula narthex), gomedaka (Onyx), sunthi (Zingiber officinalis), krauncha bird bones (Ardea Jaculator, demoiselle crane), pippali (Piper longum), vacha (Acorus calamus), maricha (Piper nigrum), vasa (Adhatoda vasica), kharahva (Trachyspermum roxburghianum), ela (Elettaria cardamomum), ashmabheda (Bergenia ligulata) and gokshura (Tribulus terrestris)-all these herbs should crushed and combined with buttermilk, whey, and the juice of a sour variety of zizyphus jujuba (Badara). used to cure mutrakrichantak (Dysuria) and prameha (Diabetes mellitus).

तक्राभयाप्रयोगैश्च त्रिफलायास्तथैव च।
अरिष्टानां प्रयोगैश्च यान्ति मेहादयः शमम्।। (17)

Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) along with buttermilk, arishta (Different forms of alcoholic preparations) and triphala (Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Emblica officinalis) are given to treat illnesses like diabetes mellitus and other conditions that cause stubborn urinary problems.

त्र्यूषणं त्रिफला क्षौद्रं क्रिमिघ्नमजमोदकः।
मन्थोऽयं सक्तवस्तैलं हितो लोहोदकाप्लुतः।। (18)

Thin gruel (Mantha) made up of triphala (Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Emblica officinalis), trikatu (Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum), ajamoda (Trachy-spermum roxburghianum), vidanga (Embelia ribes), honey, coarse ground meal and roasted wheat flour, the decoction of agaru (Aquilaria agallocha) and oil aid to treat the ailments due to excessive nourishment.

व्योषं विडङ्गं शिग्रूणि त्रिफलां कटुरोहिणीम्।
बृहत्यौ द्वे हरिद्रे द्वे पाठामतिविषां स्थिराम्।। (19)
हिङ्गु केबुकमूलानि यवानीधान्यचित्रकान्।
सौवर्चलमजाजीं च हपुषां चेति चूर्णयेत्।। (20)
चूर्णतैलघृतक्षौद्रभागाः स्युर्मानतः समाः।
सक्तूनां षोडशगुणो भागः सन्तर्पणं पिबेत्।। (21)

Trikatu (Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum and Piper longum), brihati (Solanum indicum), vidanga (Embelia ribes), shigru (Moringa oleifera), katurohini (Picrorhiza kurroa), kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum), triphala (Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, and Emblica officinalis), daruharidra (Berberis aristata), haridra (Curcuma longa), two types of patha (Cissampelos pareira), hingu (Ferula narthex), ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum), yavani (Trachyspermum ammi), shalaparni (Desmodium gangeticum), dhanya (Coriandrum sativum), kebuka root (Costus speciosus), sonchal salt, hapusha (Juniperus communis), ajaji (Cuminum cyminum) and chitraka (Plumbago Zeylanica). To make formulation for indication, all of the aforementioned herbs are crushed and combined with equal parts of ghee, oil, and honey. Sattu (Roasted corn flour) and water are also added at sixteen times their volume.

Indications

The aforementioned remedy is helpful for the management of obstinate urinary diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, mudhavata (Bowels sluggishness), jaundice such as hepatobiliary diseases, spleen diseases, piles, stubborn skin diseases which include leprosy, anaemia as haematological disorders, dysuria, edema, heart disease, anorexia, tuberculosis, respiratory disorders, cough, choking of throat, grahani disorder (Digestive disorders), parasitic infestation, morbid obesity and vitiligo. Additionally, it improves memory and cognition and increases the digestion power.

Some methods for managing obesity and ailments brought on by overnutrition include frequent exercise, eating only after the previous meal has been completely digested, and regular ingestion of wheat and barley. The regimen and formulations necessary for the management of malnutrition are explained in the following verses.

Diseases Caused By Undernutrition (Apatarpana) And Their Management

Emaciation, decrease in strength, immunity, complexion, digestion power, muscle tissue and semen, fever, pain in flanks and chest, anorexia, hearing weakness, psychosis, heart pain, accumulation of urine and stool, pain in thigh, lumber and calf regions, delirium, cracking pain in bones, joints and fingers and other such diseases because of vata vitiation, etc. are the result of poor nutrition and hunger.

Management Of Disorders Caused By Malnutrition

Therapies which nourish right away must be used often and over a long time of duration to treat such illnesses. An immediate-nutrition regimen should be used to treat someone who is experiencing acute and severe weight loss, while long-term nutrient consumption is necessary for someone who is experiencing a chronic form of emaciation.

Emaciation in chronically ill individuals should be treated according to a number of important considerations, such as the patient's bodily constitution, digestive capacity, dominant dosha, medication type, dosage, and the time and season of administration.

Soups prepared from meat, milk, and other kinds of ghee preparations are recommended for this nourishing purpose, along with practices like bathing, medicated enema and oil massages for nourishment.

The following nutritious liquids are recommended for these individuals who experience ongoing jwara (Fever-like symptoms), dysuria, emaciation, cough, thirst, and an upward vata movement.

Thin gruel (Mantha) made from pippali (Piper longum), sugar, ghee, honey and oil, ghee-in equal amount combined with twice the amount of saktu (Roasted corn flour) is regarded an aphrodisiac and is helpful in such circumstances (As described in the verse above).

To eliminate flatus (Obstructed vata), urine, faeces, pitta and kapha, one should drink saktu (Roasted maize flour) with wine (Madira), sugar and honey.

A nutritious beverage made from phanita (Inspissated juice of the sugar cane), saktu (Roasted maize flour), whey, sour gruel and ghee should be intake to treat udavarta and dysuria.

Thin gruel (Mantha) made from dry grapes, date-palm, amlika (Tamarindus indica), vrikshamla (Garcinia indica), parushaka (Grewia asiatica), amalaki (Emblica officinalis) and dadima (Punica granatum), are beneficial for treating issues brought on by excessive alcohol usage.

A mixture of sour and sweet mantha made from water, either with or without oily additives, rapidly revives and provides steadiness, a healthy complexion, and power.

Conclusion

In this chapter we read about the diseases caused by excessive nutrition and malnutrition, along with their management. The act of satiety, restoration, or refreshment is referred to as santarpana. The phrase refers to overnutrition and overeating in this situation. Santarpana is caused by apa (Water) and prithvi (Earth) mahabhuta-dominant foods. Certain food products' quantity, quality, and age might change how easily they can be digested. As an example, older grains are easier to digest compared to new ones. As a result, whereas the same amount of older food grains does not raise weight, fresh food grains are likely to do so. It is necessary to research the changes that take place when grains age and their mode of function. Undernutrition causes vitiation of pitta and vata dosha and a variety of degenerative conditions, whereas overnutrition causes increase in fat tissues and kapha dosha as well as other obstructive pathologies. This chapter has briefly discussed these things.

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Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

MD (ALT. MEDICINE)

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Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan

MD (AYURVEDA)

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