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Understanding Makshik (Pyrite): A Comprehensive Guide to Its Minerals


The Makshik is the third maharasa explained in Rasa Ratna Samucchaya and in updhatu varga by Ras Tarangini. The makshik is called Pyrite, Copper Pyrite and Iron Pyrite. It also has various synonyms and also has a story behind its origin. It is believed that makshik originated from drops of blood which was from the wound in the sole of foot of Lord Krishana. Let's discuss Makshik in detail.

ईषत्सुवर्णसाहित्यात्सुवर्णगुणसाम्यतः (र त २१/२)
इषद्रौप्यस्य साहित्याद वा रौप्यगुणसाम्यतः (र त २१/५६)

The Above stated verse states that the Swaran makshik has an appearance like Gold (Swaran) or has a tiny quantity of gold in it. That's why it is called as Swaran Makshik

On the other hand Rajat makshik has an appearance like silver (Rajat), so it is called Rajat Makshik.

Makshik, Pyrite, Copper Pyrite, Iron Pyrite


स्वर्ण माक्षिक -- हेम माक्षिक, माक्षिक, धातु माक्षिक, ताप्या, तापीज
रजत माक्षिक -- रोप्य माक्षिक, तारज, तार माक्षिक, विमल, श्वेत माक्षिक

Location Of Pyrite In India

In India

Kanya kubaj (Present name Kannauj – Uttar Pradesh), On the banks of Tapti River (Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat), Kirat desh (Tripura), Jharkhand (Singhbhum district), Rajasthan

Outside India

China, Greece, Japan, America, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Norway, Cyprus

Swaroopa of Makshik (Copper Pyrite/ Iron Pyrite)

Copper Pyrite – Lustrous like gold, Iron Pyrite – Lustrous like Silver


Maharas (By Ras Ratan Samuchya)

Types Of Makshik

The types of makshik (Pyrite) are as follows

The Two Types Of Makshik

  • Swarana Makshik – Copper pyrite/ ChalcoPyrite
  • Ropaya Makshik – Iron Pyrite

Makshik Types According To The Colour

  • Peet varna makshik (Yellowish) – Swarana Makshik
  • Shukla varna makshik (Whitish) – Ropaya Makshik
  • Rakta Varna Makshik (Greyish) – Kansya Makshik

The Kansaya makshik is also considered as the subtype of Ropaya Makshik

Which Makshik Is To Be Considered?


The Swarna makshik which is snigdha (Unctuous) in touch, is heavy on lifting, when rubbed on a stone it stretches lines like gold, without edges and has bluish / Blackish shine.

Rajat Makshik

Snigdha (Unctuous), Heavy in weight, with edges, Bright like silver and is shiny.

Shodhana (Purification)

It is done in the following ways

  • In castor oil and Matulunga Swaras (Citron fruit juice), the powder of Makshika is kept after wrapping it in a cloth. The dhola yantra (Instrument of alchemy) is used for this procedure. This process is called swedana and is done for 6 hours.
  • In Swaras (Juice) of kadli kanda (Banana stem), sweden is to be done for 6 hours.

Why Is Purification Needed?

Unpurified makshik can accuse eye disorders, lowers digestive fire, triggers skin disorders, aggravates Vata dosha etc.

Guna (Properties) Of Swaran Makshik

  • Rasa (Taste) - Madhur (Sweet), Tikta (Bitter)
  • Guna (Inherent properties) - Laghu (Light)
  • Veerya (Potency) - Sheeta (Cold)
  • Vipaka (Post Digestion Effect) - Katu (Pungent)
  • Karma (Qualities)
  • वृष्य – Acts as aphrodisiac
  • बल्य – Has strengthening abilities
  • रसायन – Delays ageing process
  • चक्षुष्ये – Good for eyes

Guna (Properties) Of Rajat Makshik

  • Rasa (Taste) - Tikta (Bitter)
  • Guna (Inherent properties) - Laghu (Light), Ruksha (Dry)
  • Veerya (Potency) -Ushna (Hot)
  • Vipaka (Post Digestion Effect) - Madhur (Sweet)
  • Karma (Qualities)
  • वृष्य - Acts as aphrodisiac
  • रसायन - Delays ageing process
  • चक्षुष्ये - Good for eyes

Effect On Dosha: Tridosha Har (V-, P-, K-)

Used In Diseases

Kshaya roga (Wasting disorders), Pandu (Anemia), Prameha (Diabetes), Kushtha (Skin conditions), Grehni (IBS), Arsha (Piles), Krimi (parasitic conditions), Vish (Neutralising poison effect), Udar/ shotha/ kandu (Abdominal diseases/ Swelling/ Itching), Kamla (Jaundice), swarbhang (In vocal problems), All types of fever, Apasmar (Epilepsy), Aruchi (Anorexia), Anidra (Insomnia)

Form of Mineral used - Bhasma (Calx) (Vermilion coloured)

Dosage & Anupana

65 mg to 250 mg with Triphala (Amalaki (Emblica officinalis or Amla), Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica or Baheda), and Haritaki (Terminalia chebula or Harad) ), trikatu (Adrak (ginger or Zingiber officinale), kali mirch (Black pepper or Piper nigrum) and pippali (long pepper or Piper longum)), Vidanga (Emblica ribes), Madhu (Honey)

Main Formulations Containing Swaran Makshik

Chandraprabha vati, Jaimangal Ras, Panchamrit Parpati, Grahani kapat Ras, Chaturmukh Ras, Ratan Garbha Potalli, Sarveshvar Parpati

Planet Ayurveda Formulations Containing Swaran Makshik

Swarn makshik bhasma, Tapyadi loha, Shwas chintamani ras, Brahmi vati, Vat gajankush ras, Vishamjwarantak loha, Jai mangal ras, Kumar kalyan ras


The makshik is known to give impressive results in many conditions, whether they are degenerative or wasting or chronic or have severe severity. All depends on the way it is given and the Anupana (route of administration). Swaran makshik is having very impressive results in autoimmune conditions as well. In addition, It can be given in varying doses to children as well as adults. But in all cases it's best to consult an Ayurveda expert as well.

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Author Bio:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan


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Reviewed By:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan


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