Acharya Sushruta - Father Of Surgery & Author Of Sushruta Samhita
Rigveda and Atharvaveda, the earliest and ancient documents (1500 years BC) have various references on disease and aspects of health. Acharya Sushruta wrote the Sushruta samhita, which is an epitome in the field of ayurveda and as an instruction manual for the holistic healing of the patients. Susruta was an ancient Indian surgeon and the author of the book Susruta Samhita. Susruta samhita is a well known book on medicine and surgery. Acharya Susruta is considered as Father of Plastic surgery. It is mentioned in various texts that the practice of surgery has been recorded in India around 800 BC. Let's discuss!!!
During Vedic times, surgeries were conducted to heal the wounds of warriors injured during a war. Sushruta Samhita is the Systematic documentation of surgical experiences and medical facts. Sushruta flourished in the 6th century and is a well known ancient Indian surgeon. Sushruta is known as father of surgery due to their operational work and known for his pioneering operations and techniques and for his influential treatise Sushruta-samhita, the main source of knowledge about surgery in ancient India. Acharya Sushruta is known to develop the concept of Shalya tantra, the other main work done by sushruta was lithotomy and rhinoplasty. Sushruta samhita is loaded with concepts associated with toxicology and pharmacology.
Sushruta Samhita – Sushruta Samhita is one of the most ancient, and authoritative classical books of Surgical practices. The Sushruta Samhita is the most representative work of the Hindu system of medicine. Susruta-samhita is recognized as the first authoritative book on Ayurveda, and is described as a subdivision (Upanga) of the Atharvan. Sushruta samhita is mainly a text on surgery. The school of med is represented by Charak and the knowledge is compiled in various sections of Charak samhita and in the same way the sushruta is compiled for the ease of Ayurveda lovers. In a concise description of the Sthanas (section) there are 6 sections. These sections are -
- Sutra Sthana
- Nidana Sthana
- Sharira Sthana
- Chikitsa Sthana
- Kalpa Sthana
- Uttara Tantra
Sutra-sthana is the first part of this voluminous medical work. The key aspects of this voluminous book are medical aspects of Ayurveda. It is loaded with a compilation of knowledge focused on the medical aspects of Ayurveda. The descriptions of diseases, the study of diet and drugs. It also guided about the duties associated with a surgeon, the procedures of various surgeries, the instruments, medical training etc. Sutrasthana is covered in 46 chapters.
Nidansthan of Susruta samhita deals with the variety of diseases and the prognosis of those diseases with causes, symptoms and pathogenesis (development of the disease). This section of Susrutsamhita helps the physicians to diagnose the diseases. Various disorders like Ashmari (urinary stones), Arbuda (Tumours), Bhagna (fractures) and Kshudra Rogas (minor ailments) are explained.
Sharira-sthana as the name indicates deals with anatomy of the human body, cosmology, embryology and various other subjects. Sharir sthan is covered in 10 chapters.
Chikitsa-sthana as the name indicates deals with therapeutics- the variety of treatment methods in Ayurveda, emergencies in surgery, geriatrics, aphrodisiacs and various other subjects. Chikitsa sthan is covered in 40 chapters.
Kalpa-sthana deals with the poisons- the nature of poisons, the management of poisons, the toxicology and various other subjects. Kalpa sthana is covered in 8 chapters.
Uttara-tantra is also considered as the supplementary part of the Sushrutasamhita. Uttara tantra is contributed by Nagarjuna. The Uttaratantra deals with a variety of subjects like eye disease, the management of diarrhoea, fever, rules of health and insanity. Uttara Tantra is covered in 66 chapters.
The Sushruta Samhita as we all know is best to know the Ayurvedic view and surgical discussions regarding various surgical concepts. It simply suggests that a student of surgery or medical should learn about surgical procedures by dissecting a body of the dead. Also Acharya Sushruta has guided that surgery should be practised on objects that look like body parts. The studies associated with incision are recommended on Pushpamala (squash), Alabu (bottle gourd), Trapusha (cucumber, leather bags filled with fluids and bladders of dead animals. Sushruta is an excellent anatomy and surgery reference having a variety of class level concepts like embryology, sex determination, pathology, toxicology, bandaging, and the importance of surgical instruments. There are various commentaries on Susruta samhita i.e jejjata, Nyaya chandrika, Panjika, Bhanumat.
The saints and sages are the epitome of Indian culture and Ayurveda. The Principles mentioned in the texts like sushruta are a blessing for the people who believe in Ayurveda and physicians/surgeons who are interested in treating the disease of the patient on the basis of Ayurveda. One wonderful thing is that these texts have such brilliant info which is used by the research scholars of the world to know the Principles of Ayurveda. The introduction of rhinoplasty, rotation grafts and knowledge of instruments is there in Sushrut samhita. Sushrut samhita is a directive principle for Lovers and followers of Ayurveda, we wish Sushruta samhita lives long and flourish the world with its beauty.