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Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 22 (Langhanabrimhaniya Adhyaya)

Abstract

The major line of therapy for morbidly obese and extremely emaciated people is explained in this chapter, continuing the preceding chapter's discussion. Ayurvedic medicine is broadly divided into two categories: nourishing (Santarpana) and reducing (Apatarpana). It is further divided into six types: Rukshana (Drying), Langhana (Fasting), Snehana (Oleation), Brimhana (Nourishing), Swedana (Sudation) and Stambhana (Styptic/Astringent). This chapter offers insights into various therapeutic measures as well as detailed descriptions of the benefits, pharmacological activities, and indications of each therapeutic process. The characteristics of procedures that are used most effectively are discussed, along with the effects of both excessive and insufficient use. So today we will discuss the Charaka Samhita Sutra sthana chapter twenty two Langhanabrimhaniya adhyaya in detail.

Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 22 (Langhanabrimhaniya Adhyaya)

Introduction

The study's attention was drawn to most of the two unfavourable types of bodily features, krisha (Emaciated) and sthula (Obesity), in the prior chapter on eight unwanted physical characteristics. The sort of therapies that are appropriate for both illnesses along with other disorders that are comparable are covered in this chapter. Ayurveda classifies pathologies into four categories: excessive elimination (Atipravritti), blockage (Sanga), tumour (Sira granthi), and incorrect circulation (Vimarga gamana). An illness may fall under one of these four categories of pathology, but depending on the patient's particular bodily constitution and the interaction of dosha, mala, dhatu, etc., as described in earlier chapters, it may present in a variety of ways. Ayurveda lists six different therapeutic approaches to treat these conditions: Rukshana (Drying), Langhana (Fasting), Snehana (Oleation), Brimhana (Nourishing), Swedana (Sudation) and Stambhana (Styptic/Astringent). The thirteenth and fourteenth chapters of this part, respectively, provide in-depth descriptions of the oleation (Snehana) and sudation (Swedana) treatments. The last four therapies—Langhana, Stambhana, Rukhana and Brimhana—are described in this chapter.

Six Types Of Therapies

Lord Atreya focused on his six students, guided by Agnivesha and committed to a life of study and penance, saying, "He is the genuine physician that knows when to make use of treatments that result in astringent, dryness, lightness, sweating, unctuous, and strength. After Lord Atreya had finished speaking, Agnivesha questioned, "Our revered preceptor, Sir, what exactly are the treatments that are Snehana (Oleation), Langhana (Reducing), Rukshana(Dryness) Brimhana (Nourishing), Stambhana (Astringent/styptic) and Swedana (Sudation) ? O cherished instructor, who is suited for this? Please tell us everything about them, as well as briefly describe the side effects of using these six treatments properly, incorrectly, and excessively.

Definitions

  • Langhana (Reducing/lightening) treatment is any procedure that results in a feeling of lightness or diminution in the body.
  • Brimhana (Nourishing treatment) is something that makes the body stronger and bulkier.
  • Therapy that induces coarseness, dryness, and roughness is known as Rukshana (Dryness producing).
  • Snehana (Oleation) treatment refers to any procedure that induces oozing, function, and fluidity in addition to moisturising and smoothing.
  • Swedana (Sudation) treatment eliminates stiffness, coldness and heaviness by causing sweat to be produced.
  • Stambhana (Astringent or styptic therapy) is a form of treatment that inhibits the movement and flow of body contents while stabilising the patient.

The Pharmacotherapeutic Qualities Behind These Outcomes

  • The medicine used in langhana has the following characteristics: It is hot, light, clear, acting, sharply, minute (Subtle), dry, flowing (Unstable), rough, and hard.
  • The medicine utilised in brimhana (Nourishing) therapy has the following characteristics: It is soft, heavy, unctuous, cold, gross, thick, stable, slimy, sluggish and smooth.
  • The medicine utilised in rukshana (Drying) therapy must be dry, rough, light, hot, sharply acting, non-slimy, stable and mostly hard.
  • The medicine used in snehana (Oleation) therapy must be slimy, liquid, unctuous, minute (subtle), heavy, flowing (unstable), sluggish, cold and soft.
  • The medicine utilised in swedana (Sudation) therapy has characteristics such as hotness, acuteness, flowing (Unstable), unctuousness, dryness, minute (Subtle), liquidity, stability, and heaviness.
  • Last but not least, stambhana requires that the medications have the following qualities: cold, soft, sluggish, dry, smooth, liquid, minute (Subtle), light and stable.

Langhana (Lightening/Reducing) Therapy

Methods Of Langhana Therapy

चतुष्प्रकारा संशुद्धिः पिपासा मारुतातपौ।
पाचनान्युपवासश्च व्यायामश्चेति लङ्घनम्।। (18)

The ten techniques of langhana (Reducing) therapy include vamana (Emesis), niruha basti (Non-unctuous enema), nasya (Nasal therapy) and virechana (Purgation) are the four cleansing procedures and other six are aatapa (Exposure to sun), vyayama (Exercise), pipasa (Control of thirst), pachana (Digestive measures), maruta (Exposure to wind) and upawasa (fasting).

Indications Of Langhana

Patients who have blocked vata, excessively vitiated pitta, kapha, waste products and blood, as well as bulky and powerful bodies, have to be treated using purificatory techniques of langhana. Patients with illnesses caused due to moderate elevation of pitta and kapha like Diarrhoea, cholera (Acute intestinal irritation), vomiting, fever, eructation, anorexia, heart disease, alasaka (Intestinal sluggishness), constipation, nausea, body heaviness, as well as comparable illnesses should first receive treatment with digestive measures from a knowledgeable doctor. The above-mentioned disorders, which are of mild severity, should be alleviated by fasting and controlling thirst. Any form of treatment for a healthy individual with a moderate condition should involve physical activity, sun exposure, and wind exposure. Exercise, sun exposure and wind exposure to mild sickness or a slight dosha imbalance should also be handled the same way for strong individuals. Langhana therapy should be used to treat people who have skin problems, urinary disorders, eat excessively fatty food, have excessive bodily discharges, and have had excessive nourishing therapy. Langhana is appropriate for individuals with vata dominant diseases in addition to the aforementioned conditions during the shishira(Winter) season.

Brimhana (Nourishing) Therapy

For brimhana (Nourishing treatment), the flesh of mature fish, birds and animals that are discovered wandering in their acceptable natural settings, that is healthy (Or disease-free), that has not been slain by harmful weapons, and that is undamaged is seen to be perfect. People that need this type of therapy include those who are physically fading away, injured, consumptive, malnourished, aged, weak, tired of long travels, overly indulged in sex, addicted to alcohol, and everyone during the season of summer. People who are weak because of illnesses like piles, consumption, assimilation issues (Grahani dosha), or who have been depleted by other (Similar) ailments might benefit from a light, easy-to-digest soup produced from meat of the carnivorous birds and animals. The best methods for brimhana are considered to include bathing, unction, sleeping, unctuous enema, therapeutic enema along with sweet medications, sugar combined with ghee and milk.

Rukshana (Drying) Therapy

Regular intake of foods and beverages with bitter, pungent, or astringent flavours, sexual indulgence, the usage of honey, buttermilk, oil cakes made from sesame and mustard, and other similar products are all known to cause dryness. Rukshana is recommended for illnesses brought on by excessive body discharges, clogging bodily channels, severe dosha ailments of important organs, rigidity of the thighs (Urustambha), and other similar problems. Unctuousness, people who would benefit from oleation treatment, and those who would benefit from sudation therapy have all been thoroughly discussed in the relevant preceding chapters.

Stambhana (Styptic/Astringent) Therapy

For stambhana therapy, any medications that exhibit stable, liquid, cold, thin qualities as well as containing astringent, sweet, and bitter tastes have been used. Patients with pitta disorders, those who have been burnt by fire or kshara (Alkali), those who have experienced vomiting or diarrhoea, as well as those who are experiencing the side effects of excessive sudation or poisoning ought to undergo stambhana.

Signs Of Excess And Adequate Langhana

The complete elimination of urine, faeces and flatus, as well as a feeling of body lightness, cleansing in the eructation, heart, mouth and throat, disappearance of exhaustion and drowsiness, the perspiration appears, the reappearance of hunger, thirst and taste, as well as a sense of wellbeing, are all indications that langhana is being administered properly. The symptoms of excessive application of langhana are joint pain, cough, mouth dryness, body aches, loss of appetite, thirst, anorexia, weakness of vision and hearing, confused mind, fainting, frequent eructation, usually upward direction of vata, weight loss, darkness feeling in the heart, weight loss, weak strength and digestive power.

Signs Of Excess And Adequate Brimhana

Brimhana, when administered correctly, gives one vigour, robustness, and protection from emaciation-related disorders. The person develops corpulence (Obesity) when they use brimhana excessively. The symptoms of rukshana when administered properly and excessively are similar with the signs of langhana.

Signs Of Excess And Adequate Stambhana

As previously said, properly given stambhana aids the patient in regaining his energy and treating his affected disorders. Constipation, a sense of tightness in the region around the heart, rigidity in various body parts, a blackish colouring, and unease are all side effects of excessive stambhana administration. If any of these six treatments are used insufficiently, the dosha is left unbalanced by the signs and symptoms. Instead, they become agitated. Therefore, if these six most effective treatments are used correctly to all of the ailments that have been mentioned, taking adequate time and dose into account, they will undoubtedly result in the treatment of all treatable conditions.

Conclusion

These treatments come in a variety of forms since there are several dosha combinations. However, the total number of these treatments is limited to six, just as there are three doshas. As a result, in the chapter headed ' Langhanabrimhaniya (Reducing and nourishing therapies),' the Lord Atreya (Teacher) has explained the six therapies that make up the entire area of therapeutics in response to the student's questions.

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Author Bio:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

MD (ALT. MEDICINE)

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Reviewed By:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan

MD (AYURVEDA)

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