Charak Samhita - Sutrasthana - Chapter 3 (Aragvadhyaya)
Charak samhita is an ancient classic which was written by acharya charaka a long ago. It consists of eight sthana and one two chapters. The eight sthanas are, Sutra sthana, Nidana sthana, Indriya sthana, Chikitsa sthana, Vimana sthana, Sharira sthana, kalp sthana, siddhi sthana. Charaka samhita explains about the diseases, their pathology, their causes, Management and complications. In this article we will discuss the third chapter of the charaka samhita sutra sthana named aragvadha adhyaye.
This chapter deals with the 32 types of formulations which can be used externally for various Skin Conditions. These 32 formulae have different herbs which work according to their potency on the affected area. Along with the skin conditions it also explained about various paste for headache, heat alleviating, to be used in cold sensation, in excessive perspiration, foul odour of the body, Toxicity, pain in the sides of chest and vataja Disorders.
Description Of Powders For External Application
- Aragvadha (Cassia fistula), chakramarda (Cassia tora), karanja (pongamia pinnata), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), vasa (Adhatoda vasica), madanaphala (Randia dumetorum), Daruharidra (Berberis aristata) and haridra (Curcuma longa).
- Sarala, Devadaru (Cedrus deodara), Khadira (Acacia catechu), Dhava (Anogeissus latifolia), Nimba (Azadiractha indica), karvira (Nerium indicum), Vidanga(Embelia ribes).
- Lasuna (Allium sativum), node of bhurja (Betula utilis), shirisha (Albizia lebbeck), lomasha (Ferri sulphas), Sigru (Moringa oileifera), guggulu (Commifora mukul).
- Phanijjhaka (variety of parnasa), kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica), saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris), pilu (Salvadora persica), Kushtha (Saussurea lappa), tender leaves of jati (jasminum officinale).
- Vacha (Acorus calamus), trivrit (Operculina turpethum), harenu (Pisum sativum), Nikumbha (Baliospermum montanum), Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium), gairika (Ferrum haematite), Anjana.
- Manshila (Arsenic disulfide), ela (Elettaria cardamomum), lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), kasisa (Ferric sulphate), arjuna (Terminalia arjuna), musta (Cyperus rotundus), sarja (Vateria indica), Grihadhooma- kitchen soot.
All above mentioned formulations are to be used by impregnated with go pitta (ox bile), ground again and mixed up with the mustard oil and used externally by the physicians alongwith the powder.
- Skin conditions
- Acute leucoderma
- Fistula in ano
- Papular eruption
Powder Massage (Udvartana)
Powders of kushtha (saussaurea lappa), daruharidra (Berberis aristata), haridra (Curcuma longa), Surasa (holy basil), Patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Sarsapa (Mustard), Devdaru (Cedrus deodara), Sigru (Moringa oleifera), Dhanya (Coriandrum sativum), Vanya (Cyperus tenuiflorus), Tumburu (Zanthoxylum alatum) and chanda are taking in equal quantities and mixed groundly with buttermilk.
Do abhyanga for the patient with sesame oil and after that the paste of the herbs smeared over the body with a very gentle massage (Udvartana).
- Relieves itching
- Urticarial patches
- In skin conditions
- Various types of edema
Powders For Dusting In Skin
Kushta (saussaurea lappa), tuttha (Copper sulphate), Kasisa (Ferric sulphate), Daruharidra (Berberis aristata), Musta (Cyperus rotundus), Kampillaka (Mallotus philippinensis), sulphur, Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), Vidanga (Emblica ribes), Hartala (orpiment), Manashila (Realgar), Karavira bark (Nerium indicum)- All these herbs are to powdered and given for dusting over the body which is smeared with oil.
Useful in following conditions:-
- Papular eruptions
Pastes For The Skin Conditions
Mix together and mix paste of Manashila (Realgar), Hartala (orpiment), latex of plan arka (Calotropis gigantea), Maricha (Piper nigrum) and mustard oil. It alleviates the Skin conditions.
- Rasanjana (Berberis aristata concentrated aqueous extract) with Seeds of prapunnada (Cassia tora) is mixed with the juice of kapittha (Feronia limonia) to make a paste. Likewise, The paste of Kushta (saussaurea lappa), karanja seeds (Pongamia pinnata) and chakramarda (Cassia tora) is grounded with Cows Urine.
- Make a paste of Daruharidra (Berberis aristata), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Kutaja seeds (Holarrhena antidysenterica). Jati’s tender leaves (Jasminum officinale), Karavira bark and pith (Nerium indicum) and alkali of sesame seeds.
- Powders of Manashila (Realgar), Kutaja bark (Holarrhena antidysenterica), chakramarda (Cassia tora), Kushta (saussaurea lappa), Kasisa (Ferric sulphate), Karavira roots (Nerium indicum), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Node of bhurja (Betula utilis) it to be cooked with tusodaka (clean water) and burn the roots of the palasa (Butea monosperma) in adhaka quantity and obtain the juice. When it is reduced to a semi solid state, the preparation is used to pacify the various skin conditions.
- Leaves of Aragvadha (cassia fistula), kakamachi (Solanum indicum), and karvira (Nerium indicum) are grinded and applied on the body of the person smeared with the oil. It is good for alleviating the Skin conditions.
Ointment And Creams For Balancing Vata Conditions
- Make paste of Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus), Badara (Ziziphus jujuba), Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), Devdaru (Cedrus deodara), Masha (Black gram), Oily seeds, Linseed, Kushta (Saussurea lappa), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Shatavha (Anethum sowa), Taila Phala (Castor fruit), Yava (Barley) and is mixed up with Vinegar.
- Vesavara (Prepare from the meat of Marshey animals) like fish is applied as an ointment.
- The paste of 4 fats (Oil, Ghee, Marrow and Muscle fat), ten roots and aromatic drugs.
- Warmed up powder of the barley - yava mixed with buttermilk and alkalies (Kshara) eradicates abdominal pain.
- Kushta (Saussurea lappa), Shatavha (Foeniculum vulgare), Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and oil mixed with Vinegar.
- Satapushpa (Foeniculum vulgare), Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Madhuka (Madhuca indica), Bala (Sida cordifolia), Priyala (Buchanania lanzan), Ghruta, Vidari (Pueraria tuberosa), Kasherula and sugar can be used.
- Ghruta prepared with rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), madhuyasti (Glycyrrhiza glabra), guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Two types of bala (Sida cordifolia) with Rishabhaka, jivaka and the milk prepared with the ghee and mixed up with honey wax.
- In Gout, The ointment made up of Ghee and powder of godhuma, wheat, Goats milk is advised.
Creams For Headaches
- Mix ghruta with drugs like tagar (Valeriana wallicii), utpala (Nymphaea alba), kushtha (Saussurea lappa), chandana (Santalum album) and Apply.
- Prapanundarika (Nymphaea alba), Suradaru (Cedrus deodara), Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), kushtha (Saussurea lappa), ela (Elettaria cardamomum), kamala (Nelumbo nucifera), utpala (Nymphaea alba), Eraka (Typha angustifolia), padmaka (Prunus cerasoides) and coraka (Angelica glauca) mixed together with ghee helps in relieving headache.
Ointments For The Chest Pain
Rasna ((Pluchea lanceolata), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Nalada (Nardostachys jatamamsi), Daruharidra (Berberis aristata), Both the varieties of Satavha (Foeniculum capillaecum and Foeniculum vulgare), Both varieties of the herb devdaru (Cedrus deodara), Jivanti root (Leptadenia reticulata), sugar- mix these drugs along with the oil and ghee and warm it up slightly to make ointment for chest pain.
For Burning Sensation
Mix ghee with Padma (Nelumbo nucifera), Shaivala (Vallisneria spiralis), Utpala (Nymphae abla), tunga (Calophyllum inophyllum), Vetra (Salix caprea), Prapanundarika (Nymphaea alba), Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), Amrunala (Vetiveria zizanioides), Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla), Kaleyaka (Santalum flavum), Chandana (Santalum album). It will pacify the burning sensation.
Paste of Lata (Rubia cordifolia), Vetasa (Salix caprea), Padma (Nelumbo nucifera), Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Aindri (Citrullus colocynthis lehrad), Durva (Cynodon dactylon), Nalina (Nelumbo nucifera), Kusha (Desmostachya bipinnata), Kasa (Saccharum spontaneum), Jala (Pavonia odorata), Yavasa root (Alhagi pseudalhagi) are used for heat alleviation.
Pastes For Cold Sensation
Ela (Elettaria cardamomum), Shaileya (Permellia perforate), Kushta (Saussurea lappa), Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata), Aguru (Aquilaria agallocha), Nata (Valeriana wallichii), tvak (Cinnamomum zeylanica)- Ointment of these are relieves cold Sensation.
For Toxic Conditions
Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck) along with Nirgundi (Vitex negundo) alleviates the toxic conditions.
For Excessive Sweating
Paste of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck), Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), Hema (Mesua ferrea), Lamajjaka (Cymbopogon jwarancusa) when rubbed over the skin manages the skin conditions and Reduces Sweating.
For Body Odour
Pate of Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa), Chandana (Santalum album), Patra (Cinnamomum tamala), Ambu (Pavonia odorata), harad (Terminalia chebula) helps in alleviating the foul smell of the body.
For managing the various conditions, such as headache, skin conditions, burning sensation, cold sensation, Vataja disorders, perspiration, foul odour of the body, Toxicity, pain in the sides of chest etc. these are the 32 types of formulations explained by Acharya charaka. These 32 efficacious powders and the pradehas are beneficial in various conditions which are mentioned above.