Charak Samhita - Sutra Sthana - Chapter 7 (Naveganadharaniya Adhyaya)
The Charak Samhita was written by Acharya Charak. Between 100 BCE and 200 CE, he penned the Sanskrit Charak Samhita. Frequently referred to as "The Father of Medicine", Acharya Charak made significant contributions to medicine. The etiology, symptoms, and treatments of numerous ailments are discussed in this Samhita. Sutra Sthana, Nidana Sthana, Vimana Sthana, Sharira Sthan 120 chapters that make up Charak Samhita. Additionally, Acharya Charak discussed howa, Indriya Sthana, Chikitsa Sthana, Kalpa Sthana, and Siddhi Sthana all make mention of the to take medications in various ritu (Season), kala (Time), and anupana (Edibles consumed with or after medications). This article will examine Naveganadharaniya Adhyaya, the seventh chapter of the Charak Samhita Sutra Sthana.
Guidelines for promoting health and preventing diseases are discussed in this third chapter of the four-part set on health (swastha chatushka). The natural desires to eliminate toxins and preserve internal homeostasis have been discussed here after the daily and seasonal regimen, have been explained in the prior chapters. By using a variety of control mechanisms, the body excretes metabolic waste through exterior orifices. 'Vega' (natural impulses or processes to excrete toxins, i.e. urges) is the name given to these mechanisms. There are thirteen different categories of physical impulses that can be voluntarily restrained to some degree. When these cravings are actively repressed for an extended period of time, metabolic poisons build up in the body systems, causing numerous diseases and localized pathologies that are inhibited. An explanation of these inclinations, their effects, and how to stop them is described.
Adharaniya Vega (Non Suppressible Urges), The Effects Of Suppression And How To Control Them
न वेगान् धारयेद्धीमाञ्जातान् मूत्रपुरीषयोः|
न रेतसो न वातस्य न छर्द्याः क्षवथोर्न च|
नोद्गारस्य न जृम्भाया न वेगान् क्षुत्पिपासयोः|
न बाष्पस्य न निद्राया निःश्वासस्य श्रमेण च| (3-4)
Intelligent people should not try to control their natural needs, which include those brought on by the urge to urinate, defecate, have intercourse (which releases semen), flatus, vomit, sneeze, belch (eructation), yawn, be hungry or thirsty, cry, sleep, or experience exertion-induced breathlessness. Diseases caused by the repression of these natural desires are being treated separately
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Urinate And Their Treatments
बस्तिमेहनयोः शूलं मूत्रकृच्छ्रं शिरोरुजा |
विनामो वङ्क्षणानाहः स्याल्लिङ्गं मूत्रनिग्रहे||
स्वेदावगाहनाभ्यङ्गान् सर्पिषश्चावपीडकम् |
मूत्रे प्रतिहते कुर्यात्त्रिविधं बस्तिकर्म च|| (6-7)
By suppressing the desire to urinate, the symptoms caused are pain in passage and urinary bladder, headache, stiffness in groins, bending of body, and dysuria. In case of obstructed urine, massage, fomentation, sitz bath, dropping of ghee should be prescribed and also the three types of basti (Enema) and catheterization.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Defecate And Their Treatments
पक्वाशयशिरःशूलं वातवर्चोऽप्रवर्तनम् |
पिण्डिsकोद्वेष्टनाध्मानं पुरीषे स्याद्विधारिते||
स्वेदाभ्यङ्गावगाहाश्च वर्तयो बस्तिकर्म च|
हितं प्रतिहते वर्चस्यन्नपानं प्रमाथि च|| (8-9)
Suppression of desire for defecation causes headache, cramps in calf muscles, flatulence, colic pain, retention of flatus and feces. In retention of feces, massage, fomentation, sitz bath, enema and suppositories are prescribed and also the food and beverages which are evacuative.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Ejaculation And Their Treatments
मेढ्रे वृषणयोः शूलमङ्गमर्दो हृदि व्यथा|
भवेत् प्रतिहते शुक्रे विबद्धं मूत्रमेव च||
तत्राभ्यङ्गोऽवगाहश्च मदिरा चरणायुधाः|
शालिः पयो निरूहश्च शस्तं मैथुनमेव च|| (10-11)
In retention of semen, the symptoms caused are pain in scrotum and penis, pain in heart, obstruction in urine and bodyache. In that case, sitz bath, massage, wines, shali rice, chicken, sexual intercourse and non-unctuous enema are prescribed.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Pass Flatulence And Their Treatments
सङ्गो विण्मूत्रवातानामाध्मानं वेदना क्लमः|
जठरे वातजाश्चान्ये रोगाः स्युर्वातनिग्रहात्||
स्नेहस्वेदविधिस्तत्र वर्तयो भोजनानि च|
पानानि बस्तयश्चैव शस्तं वातानुलोमनम्|| (12-13)
Suppression of flatus causes retention of urine, flatus and feces, abdominal distension, fatigue, pain and other disorders in abdomen due to vata. In that case fomentation, oleation, suppositories, enema, food and drinks having carminative action are recommended.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Vomit And Their Treatments
भुक्त्वा प्रच्छर्दनं धूमो लङ्घनं रक्तमोक्षणम्|
रूक्षान्नपानं व्यायामो विरेकश्चात्र शस्यते|| (14-15)
By suppression of vomiting, the diseases caused are anorexia, itching, swelling, fever, urticarial rashes, discoloration of face, anemia, nausea, erysipelas and skin diseases. In that case, therapeutic induction of vomiting (Prachchardana), smoking (Dhumapan), fasting or light diet, rough diet, purgation, bloodletting and physical exercises are prescribed.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Sneeze And Their Treatments
इन्द्रियाणां च दौर्बल्यं क्षवथोः स्याद्विधारणात्||
तत्रोर्ध्वजत्रुकेऽभ्यङ्गः स्वेदो धूमः सनावनः|
हितं वातघ्नमाद्यं च घृतं चौत्तरभक्तिकम्|| (16-17)
Suppression of sneezing gives rise to headache, migraine, neck stiffness, weakness of the sense organs and facial paralysis. In that case, fomentation, therapeutic massage, nasal drops, therapeutic smoking, vata-pacifying diet and post meal intake of ghee are prescribed.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Belching And Their Treatments
हिक्का श्वासोऽरुचिः कम्पो विबन्धो हृदयोरसोः|
उद्गारनिग्रहात्तत्र हिक्कायास्तुल्यमौषधम्|| (18)
By suppression of eructation, the symptoms caused are dyspnea, tremors, hiccup, anorexia, obstruction in chest and cardiac region which are prone to treatment similar to that for hiccup.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Need To Yawning And Their Treatments
विनामाक्षेपसङ्कोचाः सुप्तिः कम्पः प्रवेपनम्|
जृम्भाया निग्रहात्तत्र सर्वं वातघ्नमौषधम्|| (19)
Suppression of yawning causes convulsions, numbness, shaking of the body, bending, contraction, tremors for which the treatment for alleviating vata is prescribed.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Desire For Hunger And Their Treatments
क्षुद्वेगनिग्रहात्तत्र स्निग्धोष्णं लघु भोजनम्|| (20)
By suppression of the urge of hunger, weakness, bodyache, giddiness, anorexia, changes in complexion, and emaciation are caused for which a warm, unctuous and light diet should be prescribed.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Desire For Thirst And Their Treatments
कण्ठास्यशोषो बाधिर्यं श्रमः सादो हृदि व्यथा|
पिपासानिग्रहात्तत्र शीतं तर्पणमिष्यते|| (21)
Suppression of thirst gives rise to dryness of mouth and throat, fatigue, cardiac pain, deafness, depression for which cold and saturating drinks are recommended.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Desire For Tears And Their Treatments
बाष्पनिग्रहणात्तत्र स्वप्नो मद्यं प्रियाः कथाः|| (22)
The symptoms caused by suppression of tears are eye diseases, anorexia, rhinitis, heart diseases, dizziness for which sleep, wines and pleasing talks or stories are prescribed.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Desire For Sleep And Their Treatments
जृम्भाऽङ्गमर्दस्तन्द्रा च शिरोरोगोऽक्षिगौरवम्|
निद्राविधारणात्तत्र स्वप्नः संवाहनानि च|| (23)
By suppression of sleep, bodyache, yawning, head disorders, heaviness in eyes and drowsiness are caused for which sleep and gently pressing the body are recommended.
Diseases Caused By Suppressing The Desire For Breathing Due To Exercise And Their Treatments
जायन्ते तत्र विश्रामो वातघ्न्यश्च क्रिया हिताः|| (24)
Suppression of breathing due to exercise causes gaseous tumors, fainting and heart diseases. Rest and the measures for alleviating vata are prescribed to overcome this condition. The disorders caused by suppression of urges are described here. Persons desiring their prevention should not hold up these urges.
Dharaniya Vega (Suppressible Urges)
One desirous of well being here and hereafter should hold up the urges of evil ventures relating to thought, speech and action.
Psychological Urges (Manasika Vega
The urges of grief, anger, greed, egoism, fear, jealousy, shamelessness, excessive attachment and desire of taking another's property should be held up by the wise.
Verbal urges (Vachika Vega)
One should check the impending urge of speech which is betraying, harsh, lie and untimely used.
Physical Urges (Kayika Vega)
Restraint should be used while engaging in physical acts meant to disturb other people, excessive sex, violence (Persecution), stealing, etc.
The Significance Of This Restraint
The good person is joyful and reaps the benefits of virtue (Dharma), wealth (Artha), and desires (Kama) because they are free from all evil activities of the mind or thought, speech, and body.
The bodily movement which is meant for producing firmness and strength is known as physical exercise. One should practice it in moderation.
Benefits Of Exercise
By physical exercise one gets capacity to work, lightness, diminution of impurity, firmness, tolerance of difficulties and stimulation of agni (Digestion and metabolism).
Disadvantages Of Excessive Exercise
Excessive physical exercise gives rise to exhaustion, thirst, fatigue, darkness before eyes, fever, vomiting, emaciation, internal hemorrhage and cough.
Signs Of Proper Physical Exercise
Increased respiration, perspiration, feeling of obstruction in the cardiac region and lightness are the signs of proper physical exercise.
Only Suitable Measures Should Be Taken During Activities
The wise should not indulge excessively in physical exercise, speech, sexual intercourse, night-vigil, laugh and walk even if he is accustomed to them.
Inappropriate Vyayama (Exercise) Repercussions And Contraindications
Excessive participation in these and similar activities results in rapid death, much like a lion attempting to drag a (large) elephant. The persons who are much emaciated due to excessive sexual indulgence, walking, weight carrying and evacuative measures and are victims of anger, exertion, fear and grief, the children, the old and those having aggravated vata, those who speak too much and loudly, are thirsty and hungry should abstain from physical exercise.
Padamshika Krama (Adopting Good Habits And Letting Go Of Negative Habits)
An intelligent individual should acquire healthy behaviors in the right order after gradually weaning himself away from bad behaviors to which he is addicted. Following is the timetable for the same. One should adopt a quarter of health on the first day and give up a quarter of unhealthy on the first day (While keeping a third of it). On the second day, half of the unhealthy practice should be abandoned and half of the healthy practice should be accepted; this should be done on the third day as well. On the fourth day, three-fourths of the unhealthy practice should be abandoned and three-quarters of the healthy practice should be embraced. On the fifth and sixth days, this procedure should also be continued. The process of abandoning the unhealthy practice and embracing the healthy practice is totally finished on the seventh day. Demerits given up gradually and merits adopted in the same way become ever prevented and unshakable respectively.
Dosha Dominant In Body Constitution
When a person is conceived, some people have an equilibrium condition of the three doshas (Pitta, Kapha, and Vata), whereas others have vata, pitta, and kapha dominance. Diseases do not affect those in the first category (Balanced dosha). Others (Who are dominated by one dosha) are inevitably going to suffer. These are referred to as doshanu shayi (Depending on dosha dominance) deha prakritis (Body constitution).
Maintenance Of Health And Harmony Or Equilibrium
For preserving health, a diet and exercise routine with neutralizing or opposite characteristics is advised. For a dosha's equilibrium state, a regular intake of a balanced meal that includes all rasa in adequate quantities is advised.
Malayana (Excretory Pathways)
Two below (Anus and urethra), seven in head and other channels and openings of sweat (Glands) are excretory passages which are obstructed by excreta vitiated and increased in quantity. Increase in malas should be known by heaviness and decrease in those by lightness of the excretory passages and also by excessive constipation and elimination of excreta respectively. After ascertaining the disorders with the help of signs and symptoms of doshas, one should treat them, if they are curable, by prescribing therapies contradictory to the etiological factors paying due consideration to dosha and time.
The Significance Of Swasthavritta (The Illness Prevention Guidelines)
The above-mentioned and related disorders are caused by a lifestyle that deviates from that recommended in Swasthavritta. Therefore, it is important to pursue a lifestyle that promotes the preservation of excellent health.
Preventive Measures (Anutpattikar Chikitsa)
A Good Month For Panchakarma Treatments And Benefits
One should get his accumulation of doshas evacuated in the first month of spring, winter and rainy season. The wise should administer emetics, enema, nasal therapy and purgatives to those who have got their body pleated and sudation or fomented. Thereafter, one who knows times should administer tried rasayanas and aphrodisiac formulations in order and according to suitability. Thus, dhatus have been stabilized in normal condition, diseases do not arise, dhatus are promoted and the aging process is slowed down. This method for prevention of innate disorders is described here, that for others would be described separately.
Exogenous Diseases (Agantu Roga) Causes And Treatment
In the exogenous diseases which are caused in men by poison, evil spirits, fire, air, etc. there is error of intellect.
Psychological disorders like grief, anger, aversion, vanity, envy, fear etc. are also said to be caused by intellectual error.
Management Of Exogenous Diseases
Exogenous diseases can be prevented in a number of methods, including avoiding these feelings, controlling one's senses and muscles, memorization (Regimens), particular knowledge (Orientation) of location, time, and oneself, and adhering to a code of conduct. A sensible individual who cares about their personal wellbeing will therefore take these appropriate steps well in advance
Significance Of Authoritative Statements (Aptopadesha)
Good knowledge of the instructions of the authorities and their implementation is the cause for prevention and alleviation of diseases.
Avoidance Of Bad Company (Varjya Purusha)
Those with vicious action, thought and speech, quarrelsome, informers, the greedy, those who ridicule the vulnerable points, crooked, envious of others prosperity, those who indulge in blackmailing others, the unstable, cruel, those who serve the enemy, those who have given up the virtuous path-such mean persons should be avoided.
Qualities Of Good Company
Those endowed with wisdom, mature, good conduct, learning, memory and balanced mind, aged, those having company of the aged, who are familiar with nature, free from pains, good looking to all, peaceful, those who have taken some (Virtuous) vow, who advocate good conduct, those whose narrative and sight are virtuous-should be kept company of with humility and sense of service.
Important Steps To Do To Achieve Complete Wellness
The wise, who desire happiness here and hereafter, should make best effort to practice the wholesome in respect of diet, conduct and actions.
Dadhi (Curd) Intake Recommendations And Risks Associated With Inappropriate Consumption
One should not take curd at night, that is without ghee and sugar, without soup of green gram, honey or amalaka (Emblica officinalis) and that which is hot. One fond of curd and using it recklessly suffers from erysipelas, giddiness, severe jaundice, anemia, fever and internal hemorrhage.
In this chapter, the cause of diseases, aetiology of the Prameha Roga, Combination of the Doshas and Dhatus, its various symptoms, Mechanism of manifestation of 10 types of Kaphaja Prameha Roga, Six Types of Pittaja Prameha, Four types of Vataja Prameha. The prognosis, Prodromal, Complications and Principle of Management has been dealt with in this chapter of Nidana Sthana.