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Maricha, Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) - Properties, Benefits & Dosage

Maricha, Black Pepper, Piper nigrum

Description of Plant

Maricha is a stout climber plant that grows to a height of 10 meters or more. The Stem of this plant have knots where its leaves, adventitious roots and fruits emerge. Leaves are almond shaped, leathery textured about 6 to 10 cm long and alternately arranged on the stem, having Shiny dark green color on upper side and Pale-green on underside of the leaves.

Flowers are Whitish or yellowish green colored found in clusters along stalk.

Fruits are Round in form and there are about 40 to 60 fruits on each spike which are green in color which turns to red when they ripen, each fruit contain single seed.

The green fruits are dried until the flesh around the single hard seed is wrinkled and grayish black, then it can be ground into black pepper or kept as a whole seed.

General Description

Maricha is an herb which can aggravate pitta Black Pepper is exceedingly a very popular and important ingredient that is used in cooking worldwide. It is usually used in flavoring food but beside this the herb provides medicinal benefits. It has ability to improve the function of the digestive system, which reduces flatulence and bloating along with other medicinal properties.

Black pepper is formed by drying the green unripe fruit of the pepper plant. For many days it is Sun-dried or machine-dried, during which pepper gains black wrinkled skin. Then it is called black peppercorn.

Chemical Constituents of Maricha are like Pipercide, N-trans-feruloytyramine, Methylenedioxcycinnamic, Piperettine, Ascorbic acid Trichostachine, Citronellol, Serine, Cryptone, Piperonal, Camphene, Pipecolic acid, Cryptone, Piperonal, Threonine, Carotene, Piperine.

Classification

  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division - Magnoliophyta
  • Class - Equisetopsida
  • Subclass - Magnoliidae
  • Superorder - Magnolianae
  • Order - Piperales
  • Family - Piperaceae
  • Genus – Piper
  • Species - Nigrum

Habitat

It is cultivated in humid tropical parts i.e. – hills of south-western India and also in Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala. It is also cultivated in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Indonesia. South America and the West Indies.

Names

  • Hindi Name - Kalimirch, Mirch, Gulmirch, Golmirch, Choco mirch
  • English Name - Black Pepper, Common Pepper, Pepper
  • Persian Name – Filfile siyah, Pilpil, Filfile aswad
  • Arabian Name – Filfil aswad
  • Telugu Name – Miriyalu
  • Punjabi Name – Kali mirch
  • Bengali Name - Golmarich, Vellajung, Murichung, Kolukung, Muricha, Kala Moricha
  • Tamil Name - Milagu
  • Marathi Name – Mirin, Kalamiri
  • Gujarati Name – Kalamri, Kalamuri, Kalominch, Kalamire
  • Kannada Name – Kari Manesu, Kalu Menasu, Olle Menasu
  • Malayalam Name- Nalla muluka, Kurumulaku, Lada, Nallamulaku
  • Konkani Name – Kare Menasu
  • Urdu Name – Filfilsiyah, Kalimirch
  • French Name - Poivre Commun, Poivre Blanc, Poivre Noir
  • German Name - Pfeffer, Grüner Pfeffer, Schwarzer Pfeffer
  • Japanese Name - Bura- kku Peppaa, Koshou, Peppaa, Pepaa
  • Spanish Name - Pimient

Ayurvedic Properties

Hindi / Sanskrit English
Rasa Katu Taste Pungent
Guna Laghu, Tikshna, Sookshma Physical Property Light, Minute and Piercing
Virya Ushna Potency Hot
Vipaka Katu Metabolic Property (After Digestion) Pungent

Effects on Doshas

It balances Kapha and Vata doshas.

Classical Categorization

Charaka Samhita Sushrut Samhita Vagbhata
  • Deepaneeya – Group of herbs that increase digestion strength.
  • Shoolanut, Shoola Prashamana – Group of herbs useful in pain, abdominal colic
  • Krimighna – De-worming group of herbs.
  • Shiro Virechanopaga – Group of herbs useful in expelling Doshas from head and neck.
  • Pippalyadi,
  • Trayushana
  • Pippalyadi,
  • Trayushana

Ancient Verse about Piper nigrum

Ancient Verse about Piper nigrum

The Bhavprakash nighantu edition of 1998: verse 59-61, page no. 17-19.

The names of Maricha are Maricha, Vellija, Krishna, Ushana, and Dharmapattana.

It is pungent in taste. Promotes digestive fire. Pacifies Kapha and Vata. Hot in potency and piercing. Aggravates Pitta, dry in nature. It manages respiratory problems, body aches and worm infestation.

References

The Bhavprakash nighantu with elaborated Hindi commentary by Padmashri prof. K.C. Chunekar, edited by Dr. G.S. Pandey: edition of 1998: verse 59-61, page no-17-19.

Practical Uses of Piper nigrum

Piper nigrum are rich resource of medicinal properties like it is carminative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, analgesic, and anti-stress, anti-diabetic and antipyretic etc. in nature.

  • It is used for managing flatulence, gas, bloating and indigestion.
  • It is warming in nature and provides relief from the symptoms of cold and cough.
  • A good stimulator of appetite that imparts relief in indigestion and nausea.
  • It can stop vomiting in cases of cholera.
  • Black pepper is usually suggested herb in case of conditions like dyspepsia, flatulence, gonorrhea, cough, hemorrhoids, intermittent fevers, piles, elephantiasis, and malarial and intermittent fever.
  • Maricha herb is Abortifacient means it can Induce abortion.
  • It provides relief from pain.
  • It is also utilized in arthritic diseases and paraplegia.
  • It is also a good antibacterial agent which actively acts against bacteria.
  • It is efficient herb in preventing infection as it can inhibit the growth of infectious agents.
  • Also an Effective agent against fever.
  • It is Diaphoretic in nature which Stimulates sweating.
  • It is also a Hepatoprotective herb that is useful and Preventive against damage to the liver.
  • Also a good Hypotensive agent that lowers the blood pressure.
  • It is helpful in reducing stress.
  • It is a Antiaggregant which can Reduce the platelet aggregation and hinders the thrombus formation.
  • It is also Anticatarrhal which helps in removal in excess mucous from the body.
  • It is effective too in Managing or controlling diabetes.
  • Having Antiparasitic, activities which provides protection to body.
  • Helpful herb which makes an indivual to Reduce or control his/her obesity.
  • Carminative in nature and Prevents the flatulence.
  • It is also Cholagogue that helps to Promotes the discharge of bile from the system, purging it downward.
  • Rubefacient: Produces redness of the skin on topical application by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation.
  • Thermogenic: Heating

Part Used

Dried Fruits

Dosage

Powder 500 mg to 1.5 grams

Cautions

  • It has Piperine which has abortifacient action therefore it should not be used as a medicine for pregnant women.
  • It should not be taken with alcohol.
  • It is hot in potency, so its high dose must not be taken for longer time.
  • Excess use aggravates Pitta Dosha.
  • High dose may induce gastric irritation.
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