Shishyopanayaniya Adhyaya - 2nd Chapter of Sushruta Samhita
Sushruta samhita is an ancient text which explains about medicine and Surgery. Achrya sushruta explained about the surgical training, about the diseases, instruments and the Procedures. He very well told about the training of the ayurvedic practitioner. From the start of how a student to be till making him a vaidya, he explained everything. In this article we will discuss the second chapter of the Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana.
Sishyaupaniya adhyaya is the second chapter of the sushruta samhita. The name of this chapter means the students initiation ceremony. In this it is explained how to choose a student for teaching ayurveda, what are their qualities, who can study it, how to make them capable to study ayurveda, what are the Ethics of the student and the Teacher. Which are the things which are to be avoided and what are to be maintained. In which duration gaining the knowledge is avoided and what should be your behavior towards the Patients.
Qualities of a Medical Student (Shishya guna sampat)
- To study ayurveda shastra, the student should be a brahmin, kshatriya or vaishya.
- Young age, good character and wise.
- Possesses qualities of cleanliness, manners, humility, energy, Vigor, good intellect, steadiness, memory, judgment etc.
- His mouth, eyes and nose should be straight and tongue, lips should be thin.
- He should be of Cheerful in nature, have pleasant speech
Ayurveda Diksha Vidhi
The student possesses the above qualities, in a auspicious day and time, in shivadi muhurta and Ashwini nakshatra, in auspicious direction with cleanliness. A place with a four handed square angle is made with the help of cow dung with gems, flowers etc. and offers prayers to the gods, and the vaidyas. Then on the Same Ground,draw margins with upward facing, spray some water. Place the brahma in the south Direction and get the fire going. After that in this fire put oblation of the Devdaru (Cedrus deodara), bael (Aegle marmelos), Khair (Senegalia catechu), or kshirivrikha's with Curd, honey, ghee with chanting mantra om bhuvah swah, om bhuvah swah, om bhuvah swah, om bhuvah swah iti || also put oblation for every god and rishi.
Rights Of Studying Ayurveda
- A brahmin can give knowledge to other three varnas (caste) that is kshatriya, vaisya, shudra.
- A kshatriya can give the knowledge or teach to kshatriya and vaishya.
- Vaishya can teach or give knowledge to only vaishya.
- If the shudra is kulasampan and guna sampan, then he can gain the knowledge of ayurveda without mantra and upnayan sanskar.
Shishya Updesh (Ethics for a Medical Student)
- After all the holistic karma such as Havan and parikrama, taking fire as witness, the following things are to be preached.
- Abandon the lust, anger, greed, infatuation, pride, egoism, Jealousy, Rudeness, Back biting, laziness, defamatory actions.
- Cut hair and nails, wear austere (Reddish brown) clothes with cleanliness.
- Vow of celibacy and vow of truthfulness is to be taken.
- Guru's permission has to be taken before going anywhere, sitting, sleeping, eating and studying.
- If you do something opposite to this, this will be known as Adharma and the study or the knowledge is not fruitful.
Ethics For The Teacher
If all of the rules are followed by the student and still the teacher is not able to provide the right knowledge to the students he will be counted as sinful.
Behavior of the Student towards the Patient
Brahmin, Teacher, Poor, Friend, monk, hermit, orphan etc. are to be managed with the help of herbs. Treatment of the bird hunter, sinful people, Bird trapper, wicked person should not be done.
Time Prohibited For Study
- Morning dawn and evening twilight
- Unseasonal Lightening
- Natural calamities
- Important festivals
Places Prohibited For Study
- Slaughter house
- In between the way
- In unclean places
In this chapter we have dealt with the initiation ceremony of the student in which it is explained how to choose a student for teaching the ayurveda, what are their qualities, who can study it etc. It also has been mentioned that the one who will study the ayurveda regularly will find it beneficial and will be counted as Dharma.