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Viparitaaviparita Vrana Vijnanya Adhyaya - 28th Chapter of Sushruta Samhita


Viparitaaviparita Vrana Vijnanya Adhyaya tells about the study of the wound based on prognosis which is revealed by Lord Dhanwantri. Acharya Sushruta is renowned for preserving historic medical treatises that served as the basis for Ayurveda. An ancient Indian surgeon named Susrhuta lived between 1000 and 800 BC. He was the primary authority on surgery in prehistoric times. There are 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments, which are divided into 8 categories. The Brihat Trayis, or "Greatest Trio of Ayurveda," is the collective name for Astanga Sangraha, Charak Samhita, and Sushruta Samhita. We'll talk about the numerous rationales offered in this chapter as well as different kinds of Arishta Lakshanas in this post.

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Writings about both surgery and medicine can be found in the ancient Sanskrit treatise known as the Sushruta Samhita. It outlines the various treatments that can be applied to heal the ill and keep the healthy person healthy. The entire script is written in Sanskrit, which is divided into two halves. The Second Part consists of the unique volume "Uttaratantra," and the First Sthana consists of five Sthanas. Two aspects—Shalya and Shaarira—are referenced in the Sushruta Samhita. Shalyantantrum is largely described in the Sushruta Samhita, which discusses weapons and arrowheads to remove foreign objects from the body and contains major and minor operations. It has 186 Adhyayas, which are grouped into 6 Sthanas, each of which has a large number of chapters called Adhyayas. The idea of Shalya Tantra (medical science) explains a number of procedures, including Lithotomy (a surgical incision in hollow organs) and Rhinoplasty (remarking the nose).

Sthana—Number Of Adhyayas

There are eight udara rogas, eight types of suppression of urine, eight defects of breast milk, eight defects of semen, seven types of leprosy, seven diabetic boils, seven types of erysipelas, six types of diarrhoea, six types of udavarta, five types of gulma, five disorders of spleen, five types of cough, five types of dyspnea, five types of hiccup, five types of thirst, five types of vomiting, five types of anorexia, five head diseases, five heart disorders, five types of anaemia, five types of insanity, four types of epilepsy, four eye diseases, four ear diseases, four types of coryza, four mouth diseases, four diseases of grahani, four types of intoxication, four types of fainting, four types of wasting, four types of impotency, three types of swelling, three types of vitiligo, three types of internal haemorrhage, two types of fever, two types of wounds, two types of contractures, two types of sciatica, two types of jaundice, two types of ama, two types of vatarakta, two types of piles, one urustambha, one coma, one type of mahagada, twenty groups of krimis, twenty types of prameha, twenty types of yonivyapat. Thus forty eight disease syndromes have been mentioned in this context.

1. Arisht Nirukti (Definition Of Arisht- Fatal Signs)

  • Just as Flower, Smoke and Cloud indicate that rain is coming similarly Arisht indicates death is coming in future.

2. Arishta Jnana Dusaka

In spite of being manifested in a dying person the fatal signs are not recognised by an unintelligent person due to some mentioned facts-

  • Due to minute signs
  • Misunderstanding
  • Quick disappearance

3. Ways To Stop Fatal Signs

If only death could be prevented-

  • Brahmanas (free from any hatred and emotions)
  • The person who is devoted to Rasayas (rejuvenator and potent herbs)
  • By Japa (chanting the sacred hymns) and tapas (penance)

4. Arisht Signs And Time Factor

  • As many people say the troubles are caused by the stars (planets) which for some specific period of time, similarly as a result arisht (death signs) occurs at a specific period of time.

5. Knowledge Of Fatal Signs Are Necessary

  • The doctor achieves no success in this world by caring for a dying patient. Therefore, the wise doctor should make every effort to observe the arisht.

6. Signs Of Death In The Wounded Person

  • If there are any abnormal changes such as in Smell, Colour and Taste which are seen without any reason or cause are said to be the signs of death in the wounded person.

7. Normal And Abnormal Smells

According to doshas, there are various odours respectively-

  • Vata doshas - Pungent
  • Pitta doshas - Penetrating
  • Kapha doshas - odour like a raw meat
  • Rakta doshas - smell of iron
  • Sannipata -A mixture of all the smells is Sanipata
  • Vata-Pitta - similar to Laja
  • Vata-Kapha - similar to Atasi Oil
  • Pitta-Kapha - similar to Til Taila

The Dwandaja is considered a Normal odour all other odours are abnormal smells.

  • The smell is identical to wine, Aguru, Ghee, Padma and Chandan, divine smells which manifest the wounds in a dying person.
  • The wounds which smell like Dogs, Horse, Mouse, cow, dry meat, slush and mud is considered undesired smell.

8. Colour Indicating Death

  • The colour which is similar to Kumkum, Karkustha and black in colour is due to aggravation of the Pitta doshas with no burning sensation and sucking pain, the physician should always reject such patient
  • When there is some aggravation of Kapha in the wounds, itching, swelling, whiteness along with pain and sucking type of nature, the physician must reject this patient also
  • When the wound is black in colour along with thin discharge and further troubles the vital spots due to aggravation of the Vata doshas with no pain, this patient must also be rejected. 

9. Sounds Indicating The Death

  • The wound produces a Crackling, rattling type of sound.
  • Wounds which are located on the skin and muscles emit air along with sounds
  • These are considered the fatal signs (Arisht signs)

10. Touch Indicating The Death

  • The wounds which are not located on the vital spots produce severe type of pain
  • The wounds produce more burning sensation inside and cold outside or cold inside with a burning sensation inside.
  • These are considered fatal (Arisht signs)

11. Shapes Indicating Death

  • Wounds which appear like a weapon, flag, Kumta, horse, elephant, cow or bull thus appear as sprinkled dust considered a fatal sign
  •  The wounds which cause loss of strength in muscles produce cough, loss of taste and an increase in the formation of pus and blood which are present on the vital spots are considered as Fatal Signs (Arisht signs).
  • The Wounds which are not healed through the treatment which has been started must be stopped or rejected by the wise physician to protect his own reputation.


Acharya Sushruta is renowned for preserving historic medical treatises that served as the basis for Ayurveda. An ancient Indian surgeon named Susrhuta lived between 1000 and 800 BC. It has 186 Adhyayas, which are grouped into 6 Sthanas, each of which has a large number of chapters called Adhyayas. Then we discussed the various Arishta Lakshans which indicate the death of the person along with different symptoms.

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Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan


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Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan


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