Description of the plant
This is a big tree growing up to 60 to 80 feet and with thick stem of 3 to 4 ft in diameter. It is native to South East Asia. The bark is papery thin and was sometimes used for writing like Betula utilis tree bark (Bhojpatra in Sanskrit). Leaves are thin like leather, shiny and up to 3 inches long. Flowers are white in color and fruit is 1 to 2 inches long, smooth and thin.
The bark sometimes gets infected with a fungus (Phaeoacremonium parasitica) in 7 to 8 % of the trees, which turns the bark from light brown to dark brown or black. This leads to a special fragrance unique to Aguru tree due to the presence of the oleoresin.
This infected part of the tree yields Agarwood oil, which is sold in various Arabian countries, China and Japan. The oil of this tree has high economic value as it is very expensive and the cost usually same as 24 carat Gold. The reason is cumbersome distillation process yielding only 30 ml oil from 100 kg of infected wood. The oil is known as Oud and is 100 % natural essential oil.
The fragrance is mainly because of various mix of sesquiterpenes and epoxides, which can also be used as pheromones to attract opposite gender.
There are about 17 species in the genus Aquilaria and 8 are known to produce Agar oil. Aquilaria agallocha is synonym for A.malaccensis, A.secundria.
Agarwood is famous for its role in making of incense sticks for various ceremonies. The wood is also used to make beautiful carvings and sculptures. In many countries of Southeast Asia, the Agarwood beads are made to keep oneself safe from evil spirits and bringing good luck.
Special Note about this plant
Agarwood oil is obtained from the resin of the tree. The resin of the plant is called Gaharu. It is formed naturally as a result of reaction of the tree to the attack of fungus. Attacked trees spread a fragrant gum to protect the injured area, which gets hardened in the form of a resin. The hardened area contains the precious oil trapped within the Resin. This resin is processed to obtain the oil.
Habitat of the Plant
This tree is native to Southeast Asia and grows in China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Eastern India, Thailand and Malaysia.
- Latin name - Aquilaria agallocha
- Order - Malvales
- Family - Thymelaeaceae
- Genus - Aquilaria
- Latin Name - Aquilaria agallocha
- Sanskrit - Aguru, Loh, Krimij, Krimijagdh ( Because it's infected ), Krumija, Krimijagdha, Anaryaka, Vishvaroopakam, Pravara, Jongakam, ShreshtaVriksha, Vamshika
- Hindi /Urdu - Agar
- English - Eagle wood
- Bengali - Agar Chandan, Agarkashtha, Agaru
- Tamil - Agalichandanam, Aggalichandanam
- Kannada - Krishna Agaru
- Punjabi - Ooda, Pharsi
- Telgu - Agaru
- Europe - Agilawood, Eaglewood
- Arabic & English - Agarwood, Oud, Oodh
- Japan - Jinko
- Chinese - Chenxiang
- Cambodia - Chann Crassna
- Indonesia / Malay - Gaharu
- Laos - Mai Ketsana
- Thailand - Mai Kritsana
- Myanmar - Thit Mhwae
|Hindi / Sanskrit||English|
|Rasa||Katu, Tikta||Taste||Pungent, Bitter|
|Guna||Laghu, Tikshna||Physical Property||Light, Piercing|
Effects on Doshas
It balances Vata and Kapha doshas.
|Charak Samhita||Sushrut Samhita|
According to Raj Nighantu, there are 4 types of Agaru.
- Krisna Agaru
- Kaashth Agaru ( yellowish )
- Daaha Agaru
- Mangalya Agaru
The Mangalaya Agaru is considered as the best. The Agaru which is thick and heavy and which sinks down in water is considered as the best.
Ancient Verses about Agaru
- External application of herbs like Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata) and Agaru (Aquilaria agallocha) in the form of skin pack (lepa) is very useful to combat coldness of body.
- Usually bitter herbs (Tikta rasa dravyas) are having cold potency (sheet virya). But there is an exception in case of bitter herbs like Ark (Calotropis procera), Agaru (Aquilaria agallocha) and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) which are having hot potency.
- The CHARAKA SAMHITA with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary by Pt. Kashinath Shastri and Dr. Gorakh Nath Chaturvedi: Twenty first edition 1995: Chapter 25 of Sutrasthan; Yajja Purushiya Adhayaya; verse40, page no.468-469.
- The CHARAKA SAMHITA with elaborated Vidyotini Hindi Commentary by Pt. Kashinath Shastri and Dr. Gorakh Nath Chaturvedi: Twenty first edition 1995: Chapter 26 of Sutrasthan; Atreya Bhadra Kapiya Adhayaya; verses48-49,page no.509
Practical uses of Aquilaria agallocha
- The leaves of the tree are laxative in nature. An herbal tea from the leaves can be used for chronic constipation.
- Being bitter, it is good for skin disorders. The bark is used as a tea to be used as a blood purifier.
- The paste made from tree bark is useful in many skin disorders like acne, eczema, edema, and psoriasis etc.
- It is known for its heating effect. It is called "Sheet-Prashamnan" this means destroyer of cold. The paste of the bark is applied on the body to get rid of cold.
- The bark powder is used for gout, indigestion, general body weakness are also further indications.
- The bark paste can be applied locally on painful joints due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also useful to fight body odour, stimulant and shows anti-inflammatory property.
- Many people chew the bark for getting rid of bad breath.
- The Agarwood oil is used in asthma as well. 1-2 drops of oil are given orally, sprinkled on beetle leaf and chewed.
- The smoke of Agarwood is also inhaled in cases of chronic sinusitis, rhinitis and allergic problems.
- It balances Vata + Kapha Doshas.
Ayurvedic Products from Aquilaria agallocha
- Himsagar Thailam - An Ayurvedic preparation for various vata disorders.
- Anu Thailam - An Ayurvedic oil for diseases of ear, nose and throat.
- Arimedadi Thailam - An Ayurvedic oil for various skin disorders, mouth ulcers, piles.
Agarwood Bark Powder - 3-6 grams.
Agarwood Oil - 1 to 4 drops.
Agar Oil, Agar resinous wood.Share with your friends: