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Exploring the Medicinal Properties and Uses of Vibhitaka (Terminalia Bellirica)

Abstract

Ayurvedic and Unani medicine place a high importance on the bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica), a large deciduous herbal tree. It is referred to as Baheda in Hindi, and Vibheeta in Sanskrit, which signifies one who eliminates the fear of illness. It belongs to the combretaceae family. Various plant substances, including tannins, beta-sitosterol, ethyl, ellagic, and gallic acid, are present in bibhitaki fruit. The laxative and astringent qualities of the seed kernel's yellow oil make it valuable. Even bibhitaki's roots and leaves are potentially therapeutic. According to the Ayurvedic texts, this traditional plant means 'fearless of disease' because it is a wildcrafted fruit, it is not grown but rather is taken from wild forests. According to traditions, bibhitaki may manage illnesses, extend life, and improve one's strength and stamina. Ayurvedic medicine also makes use of bibhitaki because of its anti-aging benefits. It can help lessen ageing symptoms like fine lines and wrinkles and is believed to have a revitalizing impact on the body. Additionally, it assists in nourishing the skin and enhances both its general health and look. So today we will read about the herb Vibhitaka (Terminalia bellirica) in detail.

Vibhitaka (Terminalia bellirica)

Introduction

Triphala, which has been used for centuries, has vibhitaka as one of its components. It serves as an anti-hypertensive, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anti-diarrheal, anti-antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-diabetic agent. Bibhitaki is a member of Jwarahara, one of the three major categories of herbs that are used to treat fever. Herbs utilized during Panchakarma detoxification include Virechanopaga and Kasahara, which are used to treat colds and coughs. It is generally known that the ayurvedic formula calms the Vata and Kapha doshas. According to several studies, the fruit's bioactive components have antidepressant properties that make them effective at reducing anxiety and stress. One of the three Triphala fruits, Bibhitaki, aids in maintaining Kapha. The dried and powdered bibhitaki fruit is utilized in Ayurvedic treatment. Additionally, it includes a number of other phytonutrients that have been demonstrated to improve the immune system and aid the body in protecting from infections.

Vernacular Names

  • Hindi - Baheda
  • Tamil - Tanikaya, tani
  • Kanada - Behara
  • Bengali - Baida
  • Sanskrit - Vibhitaka, aksah
  • Malayalam - Thannika, tanni
  • Telugu - Tanni
  • English - Belleric myrobalan
  • Unani - Balelaa,Baheraa
  • Punjabi - Baheda
  • Gujarati - Baheda, beda
  • Manipuri - Bahera
  • Nepali - Barro
  • Assamese - Bauri
  • Urdu - Bahera
  • Konkani - Goting
  • Persian - Talelah
  • Arabic - Balelaj
  • Dravidi - Tanikooya
  • Farsi - Baleel
  • Oriya - Bahada

Sanskrit Synonyms

According to the Bhavaprakasha nighantu

Classical Reference - Bhavaprakasha Nighantu- Haritakyadi Varga- Shloka no. 35-36

Bhavaprakasha Nighantu - Haritakyadi Varga - Shloka no. 35-36

  • Bibhedaka (Destroys the ailments from roots)
  • Karshaphala (Fruits of vibhitaki weight about one karsha approx. 10 gm)
  • Kalidru Kali (Considered a lucky plant as Goddess Kali resides there and was utilised as dice in ancient time)
  • Aksha (Useful for sense organs)
  • Kasaghna (Alleviate cough)
  • Bhutavasa (Vibhitaki plant is an abode of evil spirit)
  • Bibhita
  • Taila phala (Kernel of vibhitaki yields oil)
  • Vindyajata (Grows usually in the Vindhya area)
  • Bahuvirya (Fruit of vibhitaki is very potent)
  • Vasant (Blossoms in spring season)
  • Bibhitaki

Morphology

Vibhitaka is a deciduous tree that has a roundish-oval crown that can reach heights of upto 12 to 50 metres and an overall diameter of three metres. It often has branches up to twenty metres long and a base with buttresses. The typical thickness of the bark is between 10 to 20 mm, and it is blue or ashy-grey in colour with numerous small longitudinal fissures and yellowish interior markings. The huge, globular, elliptic leaves of this tree are alternately distributed across the twigs and grouped at the ends of the branches. Simple, single flowers often have a rich honey-like aroma and are yellow or white in colour. The baheda tree has an interesting feature where the top half of the blooms are male and the lower section is either female or bisexual. The fruits are typically drupes, which are ovoid-shaped, grey in colour, and coated with tiny, pale pubescence. Each drupe contains one hard, stony seed. The fruits resemble haritaki quite a bit, although they lack the longitudinal ridges. Fruiting time is in December to February and flowers arise in March to May.

Distribution

Southeast Asia's lower hills and plains are frequent locations for it. It is widely distributed in Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Punjab, Odisha, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh in India.

Classical Categorization

  • Charaka - Jvara hara, Virechanopaga, Kasa hara
  • Susrutha - Triphala, Mustadi
  • Vagbhata - Mustadi

Scientific Classification Of Vibhitaka

In Charaka Samhita

  • Kingdom- Plantae
  • Class- Dicotyledons
  • Subclass- Polypetalae
  • Series- Calyciflorae
  • Order- Myrtales
  • Family- Combretaceae
  • Genus- Terminalia
  • Species- Bellirica

Rasa Panchaka (Properties)

  • Rasa - Kasaya (Astringent)
  • Guna - Laghu (Light), Ruksa (Dry)
  • Virya - Usna (Hot)
  • Vipaka - Madhura (Sweet)
  • Effect on dosha - Pacifies all three doshas but mostly kapha dosha

Part Used

  • Fruit rind
  • Seed kernel
  • Seed

Mode Of Propagation Of Vibhitaka

Seeds

Nutritional Components Of Vibhitaka

  • Vitamin C
  • Proteins
  • Potassium
  • Manganese
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Selenium

Phytoconstituents

Fruit Contains

  • Ellagic acid - Antioxidant ellagic acid, may help with a number of chronic health disorders and has been examined for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer qualities.
  • Beta sitosterol - By preventing cholesterol from entering the body, beta-sitosterol may be able to lower cholesterol levels. Prostate as well as other tissue edema may also be lessened with its assistance.
  • Lignans - It has been demonstrated that lignans have anti-inflammatory characteristics that can aid in reducing inflammatory processes in the body.
  • Tannins - Tannins are effective in treating disorders including diarrhoea, varicose veins and haemorrhoids because they have the potential for toning and tightening tissues.
  • Chebulagic acid - It has been discovered to be hepatoprotective, immunosuppressive, and a strong inhibitor of the human gut enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which is helpful in research on diabetes.
  • Flavonoids - Powerful antioxidants known as flavonoids shield the body from free radicals, which may harm cells and cause a number of ailments.
  • Galloyl glucose
  • Glucose
  • Mannitol
  • Fructose
  • Rhamnose
  • Bellericanin
  • Phyllemblin

Kernel contains fatty oil which is yellow in colour including fatty acids such as

  • Oleic acids
  • Linoleic acids
  • Palmitic acids

Bark Contains

  • Oxalic acids
  • Tannin

Seeds Contain

  • Oxalic acid
  • Non edible oil
  • Protein

Pharmacological Action

Vibhitaka possesses following pharmacological actions

  • Antimicrobial
  • Antidiarrheal
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antihypertensive
  • Antioxidant
  • Antiasthmatic
  • Anticancer
  • Antipyretic
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Antitussive
  • Expectorant

Uses Of Vibhitaka

  • Netrahitam (Beneficial for the eyes)
  • Bhedanam (Mild laxative)
  • Keshya (Maintains hair quality and improves hair growth)
  • Kasanashanam (Relieves you from cold and cough)
  • Kruminashanana (Beneficial in worm infestation)
  • Vaisvaryanashana (Beneficial in voice hoarseness)

Home Remedies Of Vibhitaki

  • Dysenteric - Fruit pulp is used.
  • Cough - Green fruit decoction is used.
  • Rheumatism - Oil of seed is used.

Dose

Vibhitaki Powder - 3 to 6 gm with honey or water after meal

Side Effects Of Vibhitaka

However when taken in measured amounts as directed by an ayurvedic doctor or practitioner, it is regarded as safe. If Baheda churna is consumed in excess, it might cause dry skin and constipation. Additionally, it is highly recommended to avoid using this powder when becoming pregnant or breastfeeding without first visiting a physician.

Therapeutic Indication Of Vibhitaka

  • Sotha (Odema)
  • Netra roga (Eye diseases)
  • Kasa (Cough)
  • Visarpa (Erysipelas)
  • Kesha vikara (Hair diseases)
  • Krimi roga (Worm infestation)
  • Mukha roga (Mouth diseases)
  • Mutra dosha (Urine flaws)
  • Swara bheda (Hoarseness of voice)
  • Ashmari (Calculus)

Karma (Action) Of Vibhitaka

  • Jvaraghna (Fever)
  • Amahara (Indigestion)
  • Dahahara (Burning sensation)
  • Shwasha (Breathing difficulty)
  • Deepana (Carminative)
  • Pachana (Digestion)
  • Rochana (Stimulates appetite)
  • Vayasthapana (Prevent ageing)
  • Anulomana (Downward movement of flatus)
  • Shonitasthapana (Prevent bleeding)
  • Sangrahini (Treats diarrhoea)
  • Vran ropana (Heals wound)
  • Raktadoshahara (Blood purifying)
  • Mehahara (Treats urinary tract diseases)
  • Vamana (Prevent vomiting and nausea)
  • Balya (Muscle strength)
  • Trutahara (Control excessive thirst)
  • Hikkanigrahana (Controls hiccups)
  • Triptighno (Prevent pseudo satiation)
  • Kantya (Prevent sore throat)
  • Vamanopaga (Treats emesis)
  • Krimihara (Prevent intestinal worms)
  • Varnya (Improves complexion)
  • Hridaya (Treats cardiac diseases)
  • Kanthya (Improves voice)

Therapeutic Uses

1. Kasa And Swasa (Cough And Asthma)

Vibhitaka is very effective in all types of cough and asthma. Vibhitaka powder of 10 gm mixed with honey and taken after food pacifies cough and dyspnea.

2. Atisara (Diarrhoea)

Burnt vibhitaka fruit combined with salt resolves the problem of diarrhoea.

3. Shotha (Odema)

The paste made from the vibhitaki fruit pulp calms burning and discomfort in all sorts of edemas. Additionally, rice water should be consumed with the vibhitaki paste.

4. Shwitra (Vitiligo)

Vibhitaka oil and black snake ash are applied locally. It eliminates all forms of vitiligo.

5. Netra Vikara (Eye Diseases)

Corneal opacity is eliminated by using a collyrium made of vibhitaka seed kernel combined with honey.

Sesame oil, asana decoction, bhringraj juice and vibhitaka oil are all combined and boiled in an iron pot. Use it as a nasal therapy, it improves vision.

6. Granthi And Visarpa (Cyst And Erysipelas)

Vibhitaka bark should be administered locally as a hot paste.

7. Ashmari (Calculus)

Vibhitaka seeds are mashed and consumed with wine. It eliminates calculus and fixes urine flaws.

8. Hridya Vikara (Heart Disease)

Vibhitaka and ashwagandha are combined, crushed, and combined with jaggery before being consumed with hot water. It reduces the vata that is present in the heart.

Therapeutic Indications

1. Acne (Mukha Dushika)

Vibhitaki is revitalizing and has astringent effects according to old ayurvedic scriptures. Recent studies have shown that vibhitaka possesses antibacterial activity. These characteristics make it useful in the treatment of acne as well as acne scars.

2. Constipation

Vibhitaki relieves constipation because of its rechana characteristics, which are laxatives. Additionally, vibhitaka's lubricating action has a calming effect and facilitates stool evacuation.

3. Obesity (Medo Roga)

Due to its hot intensity, vibhitaki aids in boosting digestive fire, reducing toxins, and enhancing metabolism. Vibhitaka also aids in the treatment of obesity by removing accumulated bodily waste due to its laxative characteristics.

4. Hair loss (Khalitya)

Due to the astringent and drying effects of vibhitaki, which also helps to eliminate excess oil from the head and vibhitaki is a hair growth booster that can help with both hair loss and hair growth.

Wound (Vrana)

In addition to its antibacterial characteristics, vibhitaka possesses healing capabilities (Ropana properties), which aid in the wound's speedy recovery as well as the prevention of subsequent infection.

Benefits Of Jyotishmati

  • Immunity booster - This unique fruit is utilized in various traditional treatments to strengthen the body against illnesses, strengthen the immune system, and combat microorganisms since it is high in antioxidants and biologically active substances. Additionally, it demonstrates that it has potent antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that are crucial for avoiding infections and enhancing general health and fitness.
  • Keeps liver healthy - The fruit known as vibhitaki nourishes the liver. According to several studies, the extract promotes healthy lipid peroxidation, liver detoxification and liver fibrosis.
  • Relieves stress - Mood disorders such as anxiety and depression are harmful to your health, and the fruit vibhitaki is a miraculous remedy for stress. According to studies, the fruit's ethanolic extracts have a potent impact on depression and can lessen stress.
  • Heal ulcers - The wonderful fruit vibhitaki can treat stomach ulcers. There is evidence that the antiulcer characteristics of the vibhitaki fruit, which are derived from plant substances like ellagic acid and gallic acid, aid digestion and soothe the stomach.
  • Prevent metabolic disorders - The risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be raised by a combination of diseases known as metabolic syndrome. These illnesses are characterized by high blood pressure, obesity and blood sugar. According to research, bibhitaki has incredible therapeutic qualities and may help in avoiding metabolic syndrome. The powder, when dissolved in hot water, stimulates insulin sensitivity, lowers cholesterol, and aids in weight loss.

Vibhitaka's Effects On The Various Bodily Systems

  1. Nervous system - The pulp is both analgesic and intoxicant. This could be because of how vibhitaka treated majja (Bone marrow) dhatu. Insomnia and vata problems are treated with the pulp.
  2. Digestive system - It is a laxative, anthelmintic and carminative due to its hot potency. Ripen fruit is astringent, whereas half-ripe fruit has a purgative effect. It controls excessive thirst and has antiemetic properties. It is effective for treating indigestion, helminthiasis, haemorrhoids, emesis and excessive thirst. Fruit that is just partially ripe helps with constipation, while dried fruit helps with dysentery and diarrhoea.
  3. Respiratory system - By lowering bronchial inflammation, it aids in the treatment of cough and asthma. By holding the fruit's rind in your mouth, you can cure symptoms of a cough, cold, hoarseness and asthma.
  4. Circulatory system - Due to its astringent qualities, it is utilized as a blood coagulant. It is helpful for internal bleeding as well as more beneficial for hemoptysis.
  5. Reproductive system - The pulp has aphrodisiac properties. One seed's pulp should be consumed daily to boost libido and cure impotence.
  6. Ophthalmic system -For the eyes, dried vibhitaka is beneficial. Vibhitaka is used locally to treat eye disorders when combined with honey.

Specific Formulations Of Vibhitaka

  • Vibhitaki churna
  • Triphaladi ghrita
  • Triphaladi taila
  • Triphala guggulu
  • Triphala kashaya
  • Aksiki sura
  • Aksa taila
  • Lavangadi vati
  • Talishadi churna
  • Phalatrika kwatha
  • Kali taru phaladi churna
  • Askadya triphladya louha

Planet Ayurveda Products

  • Bibhitaki powder
  • Triphala capsules
  • Khadirarisht
  • Agnitundi vati
  • Amritadi guggul
  • Shothari mandoor
  • Tapyadi loha
  • Medohar vidangadi loha
  • Punarnavadi guggul
  • Sinhnaad guggul
  • Mahatriphala ghrit
  • Ashwagandhadi ghrit
  • Weight gain formula
  • Acido plan syrup
  • Gokshuradi guggul
  • Gut vet syrup

Conclusion

One of the most vital components of Triphala, which also includes amalaki, bibhitaki and haritaki, is bibhitaki, also known as baheda. According to Ayurveda, this plant nourishes the body's dhatus and calms the vitiated tridoshas. Its pulp controls the hairs, eyes, and avoids voice hoarseness. It greatly affects each of the body's seven dhatus and supports a long and healthy life. Baheda has been described in ayurvedic texts ranging back thousands of years as a proven treatment for a wide range of health issues. It is frequently utilized to alleviate cold and cough, treating sore throat, dealing with digestive anomalies, improving cardiac working, preventing infections of the skin, stimulating digestion, reducing urinary problems, enhancing immunity, and many other conditions due to its vital bio-active components and amazing medicinal qualities.

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Author Bio:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

MD (ALT. MEDICINE)

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Reviewed By:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan

MD (AYURVEDA)

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