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Madanphala - Randia Dumetorum: The Emetic Nut in Herbal Remedies

Abstract

In ayurveda, Vamana is one of the most important parts of Panchkarma (Five Cleansing procedures) that helps in alleviating diseases by inducing Emesis. Mainly it assists in managing Kaphaj Disorders as Emesis eliminates the excessive Kapha Dosha from the body. In Ayurveda there are some of the main herbs that are commonly used to induce emesis and classified under Vamanopaga Gana (Group of herbs inducing Emesis) and among those herbs today we will discuss Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum), it benefits and apart from inducing vomiting how it is helpful in managing and various other health issues.

Madanphala - Ancient Reference

Ancient Reference - Bhavprakash Nighantu 1/160-161

Madanphala - Randia Dumetorum

Introduction

"मधु मधुक कोविदार कर्बुदार नीप विदुल् बिम्बी शणपुष्पी सदापुष्पा प्रत्यक्पुष्पा इति दशेमानि वमनोपगानि भवन्ति।।" (च.सु ४/३).

As per Acharya Charaka Vamanaopaga Gana includes 10 herbs such as Madhu (Apis mellifera), Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Kovidara (Bauhinia variegata), Neepa (Anthocephalus indicus), Vidula (Barringtonia acutangula), Bimbi (Coccinia indica), Shanapushpi (Crotalaria verrucosa), Sadapushpa (Calotropis procera) and Pratayakpushpa (Achyranthes aspera). As per Charaka Kalpa sthana chapter 1 shloka number 6 Madanphala (Randia Dumetorum), Devdaali (Luffa echinata), ikshvaku (Lagenaria vulgaris), Dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica), Vatsak (Holarrhena antidysenterica) and Krittvedana (Luffa acutangula) are included in Vamana Karaka Dravya (emesis inducing herbs). Madanphala is commonly known for its emesis inducing properties because of this the herb is commonly used for Vamana Therapy in Panchkarma. Mainly it helps in eliminating Kapha Dosha. It is also known as Emetic Nut due to its emesis inducing properties.

Scientific Classification

  • Kingdom - Plantae
  • Class - Dicotyledonae
  • Botanical name - Randia dumetorum
  • Family - Rubiaceae
  • Genus - Randia
  • Species - Dumeterom

Synonyms

It has various synonyms which are mentioned as below

  • Madana (as it causes intoxication)
  • Chardana (as it induces vomiting)
  • Pindi (as its fruits are spherical in shape)
  • Shalyaka (as it has sharp spines)
  • Phala (as its fruits are mainly used as medicine)
  • Vamana (as it induces emesis)

Other Vernacular Names

  • In Hind - Mainphala
  • In Gujarati - Mindhala
  • In Bengali - Mayanaphala
  • In Tamil - Maruk kalam
  • In kannada - Madakari
  • In Telugu - Mranga Kaya
  • In English - Emetic Nut

Habitat

This herb is commonly found in tropical and subtropical Indian forests mainly in Himalayan Ranges from Sikkim to Jammu, in Gujrat, Suralik ranges, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Dehradun, Bengal, Orissa, South Maharashtra, Bihar and in coastal sides of South India.

Morphology

It is arranged in networks and a medium sized thorny tree. Its leaves are slightly round in shape and thorns are located on each side of the axis of leaves. The flowers of Madanaphala are yellowish white in colour and its fruits are round in shape and yellow or dusky in colour. The fruit pulp of this herb is bitter and sweet and it resembles the pulp of walnut. When the pulp brokes the 4 parts of seeds come out which are black in colour and known as Madanphala Pippali. This tree blooms in summer and bears fruits in winter.

Classical Categorisation

In Charaka Samhita

  • Asthapanopaga Gana (Herbs for medicated decoction Enema) Anuvasanaopaga Gana (Herbs for medicated oil enema)
  • Vamana Dravya (Group of emetic Herbs)
  • Phalini (Group of herbs whose fruit is mainly used for medicinal purpose)

In Sushruta Samhita

  • Aragvadhadi Gana (Herbs with wound cleansing and healing properties)
  • Mustakadi gana (Appetiser and Digestive herbs)
  • Urdhabhagahara Gana (Herbs which alleviate diseases of upper clavicular region)

As per Acharya Vagbhata this herb is taken under Aragvadhadhi Gana (Herbs with wound cleansing and healing properties).

Varities Of Madanphal

  • In Raj Nighantu its two varieties are mentioned: Varaha and Madana.
  • In Kayadeva Nighantu also its two varieties are mentioned: Madana (Randia dumetorum) and Shweta Pindeetaka (Randia uliginosa), which further has two varieties: Sukshma Pinditaka and Maha Pinditaka on the basis of small sized and big sized fruits.

Method Of Collection

As per Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana 1/13 Collection of Madanphala is to be done in between Greeshma (Summer) and Vasanta (Spring) ritu (Seasons). The fruit must be free from worms and the collected food is then to be wrapped in cow dung paste and hay and left for drying up. Then these wrapped fruits are dipped in black gram, heap of hay, horse gram and green gram for 8 days. Then after 8 days fruits are taken out and it starts emitting a smell like honey. Then seeds are to be taken out from the fruits and then these seeds are to be ground by adding butter, ghee, honey and sesame paste and then left for drying up. The obtained powder is to be stored in a clean container and after use that powder for therapeutic purposes.

Ancient Verses

Shloka No 1

"मदनश्छर्दनः पिण्डी राठः पिण्डीतक्स्तथा।
करहाटो मरूवकः शल्यको विषपुष्पकः।।"

(भ.प्र 1/160)

Interpretation of Shloka - As per Bhavprakash Nighantu this herb has various synonyms like Chardana, Karhata, Madonna, Maruvaka, Pindeetaka, Pinda, Ratha, Shalyaka and Vishapushpa.

Shloka No 2

"मदनफलं वमनास्थापनानुवसनोपयोगिनाम् श्रेष्ठम्।"

(च.सू २५/४०)

Interpretation of Shloka - As per this shloka Madanphala is one of the best herbs for Vamana (Medical Emesis), and Basti (Medicated Enema) of both Anuvasana (Oil used as Enema Liquid) and Ashthapana Basti (Decoction used as Enema Liquid)

Shloka No 3

"मदनः शल्यको राठः पिण्डी पिण्डीतकः फलः।
गालवः करहाटश्च च्छर्दनो विषपुष्पकः।।

(ध.नि - गुदुच्यदि वर्ग/१६५ )

Interpretation of Sholka - Shalayaka, Ratha, Pindi, Pindeetaka, Phal, Galava, Karhata, Chardana and Vishpushpaka are various synonyms of Madanphala.

Shloka No 4

"मदनः कटुकस्तिक्तस्तथा चोष्णोः व्रणापहः।
श्लेष्मज्वरप्रतिश्यायगुल्मेषु विद्रधीषु च।।
शोफदोषापहो वस्तौ वमने चेह शस्यते।"

(ध.नि - गुदुच्यदि वर्ग/१६६)

Interpretation of Sholka - This Shloka interprets that Madanaphala has Pungent and bitter taste along with hot potency, it pacifies Kapha, alleviates ulcers. Helpful in managing fever, rhinitis, tumour, abscess and edema. This herb acts as an emetic herb and helps in purification of the urinary bladder.

Shloka No 5

"वमन द्रव्याणां मदनफलानि श्रेष्ठतमन्याचक्षते, अन पायित्वात्।"

(सु.क १/१३)

Interpretation of Sholka - As Madanaphala produces least complications among all emetic herbs, it is called as the best emetic herb.

Ayurvedic Properties

  • Rasa (Taste) - Tikta (Bitter), Katu (Pungent), Madhura (Sweet) and Kshaya (Astringent)
  • Guna (Quality) - Laghu (Light) and Ruksha (Dry)
  • Veerya (Potency) - Ushna (Hot)
  • Vipaka (Post Digestive Effect) - Katu (Pungent)
  • Dosha Karma (Action on doshas) - Kapha Vata shamak (Reduces Kapha and Vata Dosha)

Therapeutic Indications

Following are various therapeutic properties of Madanphala

  • Shothahara (Reduces Swelling)
  • Vedna Sthapana (Reduces pain)
  • Vrana Shodhaka (Helps in wound cleansing)
  • Krimighna (manages worm infestation)
  • Raktashodhak (Aids blood purification)
  • Jwaraghana (Antipyretic)
  • Artava Janan (Induce healthy menstruation)

Chemical Composition

  • Bark - It contains Mannitol, Saponins and coumarin glycosides
  • Root Bark - Triterpene, 1-keto-3-hydroxy oleanane
  • Leaf - Iridoid-10-methyl iodide and Iridoid Glycoside
  • Fruit - Glycosides, Mollisidial Triterpenoid glycosides, Randioside, Randianin
  • Seed - It contains protein (14.2%), Fats (1.5%), Mucilage, Resin, organic acid and few unidentified alkaloids

Properties Of Madanphala

  • Therapeutic Emetic
  • Antioxidant
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti Inflammatory
  • Analgesic
  • Immunomodulatory

Systemic Actions

Following are various Systemic Actions of herb Madanphala

  • Digestive System - It contains Saponin as a chemical constituent which helps in inducing emesis. Along with that it has Anthelmintic properties and helps in normal movement of Vata Dosha thus helps in alleviating worm infestation, constipation etc.
  • Respiratory - As it has kapha eliminating properties thus it is helpful in cough, cold, rhinitis and various respiratory conditions.
  • Reproductive System - The herb has rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties which helps in improving reproductive health as well as prevents ageing. In females it is indicated in delayed labour and Dysmenorrhea.
  • Antidote - It acts as an antidote for Opium and Aconitum poisonings due to its chemical constituent Saponin.
  • Nervous System - As this herb is helpful in alleviating Vata Dosha thus it helps in maintaining the general health of the Nervous System, mainly decoction of madanaphala is used for this.
  • Circulatory System - This herb consists of Coumarin glycosides which helps in improving circulation thus it helps in preventing various conditions related to circulatory system.

Practicle Uses / Benefits

Following are some of the common practical uses and benefits of Madanphala herb

  • The most common use of Madanphala is to induce vomiting. It is to be administered as per traditional method. Like the person who is fit for Vamana Therapy have to undergo Senahana and Swedana therapies (Oleation and sudation therapeies). On the previous night of Vamana Therapy Kapha, an increasing diet is to be administered to the patient such as milk, meat soup, black gram, curd, etc. the very next day Yavagu (gruel) is to be administered to the patient. Then Madanaphala along with small quantity of ghee is to be administered and that Madanphala must be soaked in decoction of Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Kovidara (Bauhinia variegata), Kadamba (Neolamarckia cadamba), Samudraphala (Barringtonia acutangula), Bimbi (Coccinia indica), Shanapushpi (Crotalaria verrucosa), Sadapushpa (Calotropis procera) and Pratayakpushpa (Achyranthes aspera).
  • This herb is also effective in Eczema Rashes. For this root paste of Madanphala is to be applied locally. For this purpose take fresh roots of Madanphala and grind it well in pestle and mortar by adding lemon juice into it. Other than eczema this paste can be applied in other skin conditions for healing purposes.
  • Randia dumetorum shows really good effects in alleviating headache, especially vascular headache (Headache due to changes in blood flow). For this purpose take a fist full of flowers of Randia dumetorum and grind it well along with mustard seeds. Local application of this remedy over the forehead helps in alleviating headache.
  • Its paste is used as a local application in various kinds of inflammation and pain associated conditions.
  • It is also used for cleansing of wounds by washing the wound with its decoction. Local application of paste of Madanaphala on External Abscess is helpful in healing of Abscess.
  • Make paste of Madanphala by mixing it with vinegar, this paste is to be applied on umbilicus which helps in relieving abdominal pain.

Part Used

Fruits, Seeds

Dosage

Churna / Powder - 1 gm for therapeutic purpose and for inducing vomiting 3-6 gm

Ayurvedic Medicines

  • Madanaphala Churna
  • Madanaphaladi Lepa
  • Madanphaladi Taila
  • Pindeetaka Yoga
  • Ashwagandhadi taila
  • Irimedadi Taila
  • Phalvarti
  • Bala Taila
  • Aragwadhadi Kashayam
  • Aragvadhadhi Ghrit

Conclusion

Madanphala is commonly known for its emesis inducing properties because of this the herb is commonly used for Vamana Therapy in Panchkarma. In this article its Scientific Classification, Synonyms, Ancient Verses, Systemic Actions, Practical Uses, Chemical Constituents are mentioned. This herb can be taken under strict guidance of M.D. Ayurveda practitioner otherwise it may lead to various side effects. This herb has various external and internal benefits that we have mentioned in this article. So you can use this herb if you have any of these conditions, under the guidance of an Ayurvedic Doctor.

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Author Bio:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor - Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

Dr. Meenakshi Chauhan

MD (ALT. MEDICINE)

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Reviewed By:

Best Ayurvedic Doctor in Mohali - Dr. Vikram Chauhan

Dr. Vikram Chauhan

MD (AYURVEDA)

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